Biodiesel from Sunflower
– Sunflower Oil as Biofuel
Sunflower oil is being tested in quite a few places
worldwide for its Biodiesel capability. While the chemical properties of the
oil lend themselves well for biodiesel manufacture, the high cost of
sunflower oil casts doubts on whether it can ever be a significant feedstock
for biodiesel production.
- Sunflower Crop Feasibility for Bio-diesel Production in Spain – from EECI.net
- Production of Diesel Engine Fuel by Ozonation of Sunflower Seed Oil - Abstract - In the first stage of this project we applied an additional process of ozonation and electroreduction to fatty acid methylester and tried to crack fatty acids with a long carbon chain into low molecular materials. The main purpose of these new treatments was to improve the disadvantages of biodiesel (BDF) like high viscosity, flash point and pour point. This new method was very effective to improve viscosity and flash point, but no improvement was found in pour point. Its flash point became around 25 oC which was not within the regulation of biodiesel standard. Therefore, we decided to employ methyl-transesterification as the basic method for BDF production, and tried to improve its high pour point by using additives. The optimization of reaction and purification process in BD production was done for the establishment of continuous BDF production system. In order to increase the business possibility of BDF, basic studies on the conversion of waste glycerol to 1,3-propandiol and the genetic breeding of sunflower for controlling oil production yield and the fatty acids composition in sunflower oil were conducted. The feasibility study on CDM in Thailand was also conducted, and we submitted its PDD to the UN evaluation committee. Keywords: biodiesel, pour point, additives, glycerol, genetic breeding (PDF)
- Kinetics of Sunflower Oil Methanolysis - Gemma Vicente, Mercedes Martínez, José Aracil,* and Alfredo Esteban - Abstract: A study was made of the kinetics of sunflower oil methanolysis. This reaction yields methyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerol and consists of three consecutive reversible reactions. Diglycerides and monoglycerides are intermediate products. A reaction mechanism was proposed involving an initial region of mass transfer control followed by a second region of kinetical control. An analysis was also made of the effects of impeller speed, temperature, and catalyst concentration on the reaction rates, determining the reaction rate constants and the activation energies. The reactions were performed in a batch stirrer reactor, and the reaction mixture was analyzed by gas chromatography. The initial mass transfer-controlled region was not significant using 600 rpm. The kinetically controlled section followed a second-order mechanism for the forward and reverse reactions, where the reaction system could be described as a pseudo-homogeneous catalyzed reaction. The temperature and catalyst concentration increased the reaction rates. The proposed mathematical model fitted the experimental results well.
Content derived from Wikipedia article on Sunflower Oil
Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as a frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient.
1 Chemical structure
2 Physical properties
4 Health benefits
4.1 Diet and cardiovascular Benefits
4.2 Restaurant and food industry uses
4.3 Sunflower oil as skin protection
Sunflower oil contains predominantly linoleic acid in
triglyceride form. The British Pharmacopoeia lists the following profile:
Palmitic acid : 4.0 per cent to 9.0 per cent,
Stearic acid : 1.0 per cent to 7.0 per cent,
Oleic acid : 14.0 per cent to 40.0 per cent,
Linoleic acid : 48.0 per cent to 74.0 per cent.
There are several types of sunflower oils produced, such as high linoleic, high oleic and mid oleic. High linoleic sunflower oil typically has at least 69% linoleic acid. High oleic sunflower oil has at least 82% oleic acid. Variation in fatty acid profile are strongly influenced by both genetics and climate.
Sunflower oil also contains lecithin, tocopherols, carotenoids and waxes. Sunflower oil's properties are typical of a vegetable triglyceride oil. Healthy, natural sunflower oil is produced from oil type sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is light in taste and appearance and supplies more Vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. It is a combination of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with low saturated fat levels.
Sunflower oil is liquid at room temperature. The refined oil is clear and slightly amber-colored with a slightly fatty odor.
As a frying oil, Sunflower oil behaves as a typical vegetable triglyceride. In cosmetics, it has smoothing properties and is considered noncomedogenic. Only the high-oleic variety possesses shelf life sufficient for commercial cosmetic formulation. Sunflower oil's INCI name is Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil.
Recently Lay's potato chips, by Frito-Lay have begun using sunflower oil to cook their potato chips.
Sunflower oil, derived from the sunflower plant (Helianthus annus) has many suggested health benefits. Like olive or canola oils, sunflower oils have been used in everyday cooking, in restaurants, and in the food manufacturing industry. Its health uses began with Native Americans, who used sunflower oil for skin and hair health as well as other medicinal purposes. In Europe during the 19th century, ideas about producing sunflower oil began to grow. By the 1920s, North America began producing oil from sunflower seeds (www.sunflowernsa.com).
Diet and cardiovascular Benefits
Sunflower oil is high in the essential vitamin E and low in saturated fat. The two most common types of sunflower oil are Linoleic and High oleic. Linoleic sunflower oil is a common cooking oil that has high levels of the essential fatty acids called polyunsaturates. It is also known for having a clean taste and low levels of trans fat. High oleic sunflower oils are classified as having monounsaturated levels of 80% and above. Newer versions of sunflower oil have been developed as a hybrid containing linoleic acid. They have monounsaturated levels lower than other oleic sunflower oils. The hybrid oil also has lower saturated fat levels than linoleic sunflower oil (www.sunflowernsa.com). Sunflower oil of any kind has been shown to have cardiovascular benefits as well. Diets combined with a low fat content and high levels of oleic acid have been suggested to lower cholesterol which, in turn, results in a smaller risk of heart disease (www.ars.usda.gov). Sunflower oils fit this criteria. A diet consisting of sunflower oil may lower cholesterol by as much as 5%. Studies of adults suggested that a balanced diet with sunflower oil has detectable cholesterol- reducing benefits. Research suggests that lower cholesterol levels can be caused by balances of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Sunflower oil may help with this balance (www.newstarget.com).
Restaurant and food industry uses
Restaurants and food manufacturers are also beginning to utilize the health benefits of the oil. They are continuing to look for ways to offer a healthier selection of food. Sunflower oil may be a healthy way to cook their menu items. The oil can be used in conditions with extremely high cooking temperatures (www.newstarget.com). It may also help food stay fresher and healthier for longer periods of time (www.ars.usda.gov). Grocery store shoppers might also be looking for healthy items on shelves. Food manufacturers are looking into the sunflower oil option to lower the levels of trans fat in mass production of foods (www.newstarget.com).ǫ
Sunflower oil as skin protection
Sunflower oil may also have suggested skin-health benefits as well. Sunflower oil, like other oils, can retain moisture in the skin. However, it may also provide a protective barrier that resists infection. Studies using sunflower oil have been conducted involving preterm infants that are often susceptible to infection due to their underdeveloped skin. (In infants, the skin is a major form of protection against infection.) Research suggests that preterm infants with low birth weight can benefit from sunflower oil skin treatments. Infections decreased by 41% in infants that received a daily skin treatment of sunflower oil. The sunflower oil provided a protective barrier against infection that was not otherwise present on the infant (www.medscape.com).
^ British Pharmacopoeia Commission. "Ph Eur monograph
1371", British Pharmacopoeia 2005. Norwich, England: The Stationery
Office. ISBN 0-11-322682-9.
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About Oilgae - Oilgae - Oil & Biodiesel from Algae
has a focus on biodiesel production from algae while also discussing
alternative energy in general. Algae present an exciting possibility as a
feedstock for biodiesel, and when you realise that oil was originally
formed from algae - among others - you think "Hey! Why not oil
again from algae!"
To facilitate exploration of oil production from algae as well as exploration of other alternative energy avenues, Oilgae provides web links, directory, and related resources for algae-based biofuels / biodiesel along with inputs on new inventions, discoveries & breakthroughs in other alternative energy domains such as Solar Wind nuclear, hydro, Geothermal hydrogen & fuel cells, gravitational, geothemal, human-powered, ocean & Wave / tidal energy.