Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››


Comprehensive Report on Attractive Algae Product Opportunities

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industrThe report provides an overview of the wide range of non-fuel applications of algae – both current and future prospects. It will provide entrepreneurs with an idea of how to derive more benefits from their algal energy ventures. The report provides detailed case studies, success stories and factoids of companies that have been involved in the algae products venture. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

There is no other comprehensive report available for castor oil anywhere in the world. This is the first of its kind, and currently, the only one. More ››

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor, published by the Bioplastics Guide, is a unique guiding framework for businesses and entrepreneurs to chart a way forward provides a critical analysis of the status, opportunities & trends of the global bioplastics sector. More ››

Algae - Food and Feed

Edible Sea-weeds 

Hydrocolloids

Animal and Fish Feed

Algae-Useful Substances

Pigments

PUFAs

Vitamins

Anti-oxidants


Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

Research on Biodiesel from Algae


Enhancing lipid production rates by increasing the activity of enzymes via genetic engineering
Lipid accumulation in algae typically occurs during periods of environmental stress, including growth under nutrient-deficient conditions. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. In some cases, lipid content can be enhanced by the imposition of nitrogen starvation or other stress factors. Biochemical studies have also suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), a biotin-containing enzyme that catalyzes an early step in fatty acid biosynthesis, may be involved in the control of this lipid accumulation process. Therefore, it may be possible to enhance lipid production rates by increasing the activity of this enzyme via genetic engineering.

Through nitrogen & phosphorus deprivation
Induction of Lipid Synthesis by Nutrient Deprivation in Microalgae - In an experiment, microalgal strains were screened in the laboratory for their biomass productivity and lipid content. Four strains (two marine and two freshwater), selected because of their robustness, high productivity and relatively high lipid content, were cultivated under nitrogen deprivation in 0.6-L bubbled tubes. Only the two marine microalgae accumulated lipid under such conditions; they are eustigmatophyte & Nannochloropsis sp. F&M-M24, which attained 60% lipid content after nitrogen starvation. These were subsequently grown in a photobioreactor to study the influence of irradiance and nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) deprivation on fatty acid accumulation. Fatty acid content increased with high irradiances (up to 32.5% of dry biomass) and following both nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation (up to about 50%). Further tests proved that under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions, for specific strains, lipid productivity increased from 117 mg/L/day in nutrient sufficient media (with an average biomass productivity of 0.36 g/L/day and 32% lipid content) to 204 mg/L/day (with an average biomass productivity of 0.30 g/L/day and more than 60% final lipid content) in nitrogen deprived media. In a two-phase cultivation process (a nutrient sufficient phase to produce the inoculum followed by a nitrogen deprived phase to boost lipid synthesis) the oil production potential could be projected to be more than 90 kg per hectare per day. This is the first report of an increase of both lipid content and areal lipid productivity attained through nutrient deprivation in an outdoor algal culture. The experiments showed that this marine eustigmatophyte has the potential for an annual production of 20 tons of lipid per hectare in the Mediterranean climate and of more than 30 tons of lipid per hectare in sunny tropical areas. (Reference: Title: Microalgae for oil: Strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor; University: Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 24, 50144 Firenze, Italy, Source: Biotechnol Bioeng, 2008 Jun 18)

Si Depletion - research into diatom lipid accumulation by silicon depletion
Cyclotella cryptica accumulated more lipid more rapidly after Si depletion. Further studies (by NREL, during the ASP Program) identified two factors that seemed to be at play in this species:
•    Si-depleted cells direct newly assimilated carbon more toward lipid production and less toward carbohydrate production.
•    Si-depleted cells slowly convert non-lipid cell components to lipids.
•    During the ASP research at NREL, the highest lipid content occurred with Navicula, which increased from 22% in exponential phase cells to 49% in Si-deficient cells and to 58% in N-deficient cells.
•    Coomls, et al. reported that the lipid content of the diatom Navioua pelliculosa increased by about 60% during a 14-hour silicon starvation period. Similarly, Werner also reported an increase in cellular lipids during a 24 hours silicon starvation period. The switch from carbohydrate accumulation to lipid accumulation in these Diatoms occurs very rapidly, though mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood.