Biochemical Processes - Under specific conditions, algae produce hydrogen, via biological and photobiological processes. Under these conditions, enzymes in the cell act as catalysts to split the water molecules. For more information see: Biophotolysis of water by microalgae and cyanobacteriaGasification – Gasifying biomass gives syngas, a mixture of CO and H2. A number of methods are being researched to separate the H2 from syngas.
During gasification, biomass is converted into a gaseous mixture comprising primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, by applying heat under pressure in the presence of steam and a controlled amount of oxygen. The biomass is chemically broken apart by the gasifier's heat, steam, and oxygen, setting into motion chemical reactions that produce a synthesis gas, or "syngas" - a mixture of primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The carbon monoxide is then reacted with water to form carbon dioxide and more hydrogen
Through Steam Reformation of Methane – Fermentation of Algal Biomass produces methane. The traditional steam reformation (SMR) techniques can be used to derive hydrogen from methane.Steam reforming is the most common method of producing commercial bulk hydrogen as well as the hydrogen used in the industrial synthesis of ammonia. It is also the least expensive method. At high temperatures (700 – 1100 °C) and in the presence of a metal-based catalyst (nickel), steam reacts with methane to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen
CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2