Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››

Comprehensive Report on Attractive Algae Product Opportunities

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industrThe report provides an overview of the wide range of non-fuel applications of algae – both current and future prospects. It will provide entrepreneurs with an idea of how to derive more benefits from their algal energy ventures. The report provides detailed case studies, success stories and factoids of companies that have been involved in the algae products venture. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

There is no other comprehensive report available for castor oil anywhere in the world. This is the first of its kind, and currently, the only one. More ››

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor, published by the Bioplastics Guide, is a unique guiding framework for businesses and entrepreneurs to chart a way forward provides a critical analysis of the status, opportunities & trends of the global bioplastics sector. More ››

Algae - Food and Feed

Edible Sea-weeds 


Animal and Fish Feed

Algae-Useful Substances





Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

Cultivation of Algae in Marine environment

Marine plants come in two forms. Some marine algae are so small they can only be seen under a microscope. Others are very large called macroalgae or seaweeds, such as Macrocystis, a species of kelp belonging to the Brown Algae group, which may reach 60 meters in length.

Because of its salt content, salt water is more economical than fresh water for growing algae. The main nutrients needed for algae growth is already present in seawater.

Seawater is a solution of salts of nearly constant composition, dissolved in variable amounts of water. There are over 70 elements dissolved in seawater but only 6 make up>99% of all the dissolved salts; all occur as ions - electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms:

Composition of Seawater


7.68 wt%


1.16 wt%


30.61 wt%


3.69 wt%


1.10 wt%


Macro-algae are cultivated at sea mainly by simply tying them to anchored floating lines. Seaweeds do not require soil, and are already provided with all the water they need, a major advantage over land production of biofuels since water is the most limiting factor for most agricultural expansion, especially with climate change

Algae Production in Open Ocean Environments

Many countries have limited land for farming or growing oil crops, or for that matter algae, but have much larger ocean areas. So a natural question that arises is: how can algae be cultivated in ocean environments for biodiesel? Most research so far into algae-culture have concentrated on inland & controlled sites.

To get high oil yields per Acre the environment needs to be controlled to a significant extent in order to keep other species from coming in and taking over. It will be extremely difficult in open, uncontrolled environments to keep lower, undesirable strains of algae from taking over high oil algae, which aren't particularly competitive in such open environments. Also to be considered are problems such as how to harvest in an open ocean, etc. At this stage of research hence, harvesting specific strains of algae in open ocean environments appears to be a considerably difficult matter.

In addition, recent techniques have been developed for the large scale production of marine micro-algae under Heterotrophic Growth conditions, by utilizing organic carbon instead of light as an energy source. Heterotrophic algal cultures can attain up to 1,000 times higher densities than photoautotrophic cultures and can be preserved by spray-drying.

For more inputs on heterotrophic algea in the context of Biodiesel see: Replacement Diets for Live Algae from FAO & Biofuels Production from Microalgae after Heterotrophic Growth (PDF)

See the following sections in Cultivation of Algae in Marine environment:

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