Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››


Comprehensive Report on Attractive Algae Product Opportunities

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industrThe report provides an overview of the wide range of non-fuel applications of algae – both current and future prospects. It will provide entrepreneurs with an idea of how to derive more benefits from their algal energy ventures. The report provides detailed case studies, success stories and factoids of companies that have been involved in the algae products venture. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

There is no other comprehensive report available for castor oil anywhere in the world. This is the first of its kind, and currently, the only one. More ››

Algae-Useful Substances

Pigments

PUFAs

Vitamins

Anti-oxidants


Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

Algae Oil Information

Micro-algae are the fastest growing photosynthesizing unicellular organisms and can complete an entire growing cycle every few days. Some algae species have high Oil content (up to 60% oil by weight) and can produce up to 15,000 gallons of oil per Acre per year under optimum conditions.
One of the key reasons why algae are considered as feedstock for oil is their yields. Put simply, algae are the only biofeedstock that can theoretically replace all of our petro-fuel consumption of today and future. Owing to the fact that oil yields are much lower for other feedstocks when compared to those from algae, it will be very difficult for the first generation Biodiesel feedstock such as soy or palm to produce enough oil to replace even a small fraction of petro-oil needs without displacing large percentages of arable land towards crops for fuel production.
 
Comparison of Biodiesel from Microalgal Oil and Diesel Fuel

Properties

Biodiesel   from Microalgal Oil

Diesel   Fuel

Density Kg l-1

0.864

0.838

Viscosity Pa s

5.2×10-4 (40 ēC)

1.9 - 4.1 ×10-4 (40 ēC)

Flash point ēC

65-115*

75

Solidifying point ēC

-12

-50 - 10

Cold filter plugging point ēC

-11

-3.0 (- 6.7 max)

Acid value mg KOH g-1

0.374

0.5 max

Heating value MJ kg-1

41

40 - 45

HC ratio

1.18

1.18

*: Based on data from multiple sources
Source: Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing , China (2004)

Increasing the Oil Yields from Algae
Yields from algae are much higher than those from other oil crops and there is a huge potential to increase this high yield even further
To improve lipid yields in Microalgae one must understand the physiological and biochemical basis for partitioning photosynthetically fixed CO2 into lipids. The rate of lipid synthesis and final lipid yield will depend on the availability of carbon for lipid synthesis and the actual levels and activities of the enzymes used for lipid synthesis. Conditions such as nitrogen deficiency that induce the accumulation of lipid by algae often drastically reduce the capacity of photosynthetic CO2 fixation. Low lipid yields could result either from an absence of carbon skeletons or from low levels of enzymes. Improvements in lipid yield can be achieved only when the limiting factors have been determined.
Research efforts are continuing in order to determine the pathways of lipid biosynthesis in algal cells, especially in the cytoplasm, chloroplast and mitochondrion. Each pathway possesses potential lipid triggers. Once the trigger is determined, biochemical and genetic engineering techniques can be used to increase the lipid yield of promising algal strains.
To know more about Algae Oil Yields, buy our Comprehensive Oilgae report with its recent updated version. List of contents under this topic include:
•    Comparison of Yields from Algae with Other Oil Crops
•    Real-life Quotes for Oil Yield
•    Reasons behind High Algae Yields
•    Increasing the Oil Yields from Algae
•    Examples of Research & Case Studies of Increasing Oil Yields in Algae
See the following sections:

Reference: Chemistry & Structure of Fixed Oils

Fixed oils from seeds, nuts & vegetables are typically composed of triglyceride molecules (also known as triacylglycerol or triacylglyceride). A triglyceride is a glyceride in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids - a triglyceride is typically composed of a 3-carbon alcohol (glycerol) plus three 18-carbon (or 16-carbon) fatty acids. The 18-carbon fatty acids are Linoleic acid, Stearic acid & Oleic acid.

  • Glycerol + Three Fatty Acids = A Fat Molecule (Triglyceride)
  • Linoleic Acid Polyunsaturated: 2 Double Bonds In The Molecule
  • Stearic Acid Saturated: All Single Bonds Between Atoms Of Carbon
  • Oleic Acid Monounsaturated: 1 Double Bond between Carbons 9 & 10

The fatty acids may be saturated (with all single bonds), mono-unsaturated (with one double bond) or polyunsaturated (with 2 or more double bonds). Plant fatty acids are usually unsaturated and liquid at room temperature, with one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms (mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated). A notable exception is the palm fatty acid – palmitin – which is saturated and contains 16 rather than 18 carbon atoms. Since the plant fatty acids are unsaturated, the plant oils it is liquid at room temperature.

See also: Triglycerides – from Wikipedia, Linoleic Acid – from Wikipedia, Stearic Acid – from Wikipedia, Oleic Acid Physical & Chemical Properties, Fats, Oils, Fatty Acids, Triglycerides Chemical Structure, See also: Food, Fats & Oils – from ISEO (PDF), Determining the Contents of Oilseeds (PDF)

Cis & Trans Fatty Acids

Fatty acid isomers containing double bonds may have the cis or trans configuration. In cis fatty acids, all the hygrogen atoms adjacent to the double bonds are on the same side of the longitudinal carbon axis. In trans fatty acids, the hygrogen atoms adjacent to the double bonds occur on alternate sides of the main axis.

The trans configuration is chemically more stable. It is typically produced during partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated vegetable oils.

Trans fatty acids tend to raise the level of low density lipoproteins (LDLs = bad) and lower the level of high density lipoproteins (HDLs = good). These changes in blood Lipids (cholesterol levels) may increase the risk of heart disease (atherosclerosis) in some people. Dieticians generally recommend the use of mono-unsaturated, unhydrogenated oils and the avoidance of trans fatty acids found in french fries, cookies and crackers.

Unsaturated fatty acids found in plant oils and seeds are typically omega-6 fatty acids, in which the first double bond is located on the sixth carbon atom, counting backwards from right to left. Omega-3 fatty acids – in which the first double bond in on carbon #3 - are prevalent in fish oils and flax seeds.

More articles & news on algal oil: Visitors may kindly have a look at the Oilgae Blog Directory for relevant blog articles.

Other Related Sections

Blue Green Algae, Red Algae, Green Algae, Marine Algae, String Algae, Pond Algae, Pond Algae Control, Algae Control

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