Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››


Comprehensive Report on Attractive Algae Product Opportunities

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industrThe report provides an overview of the wide range of non-fuel applications of algae – both current and future prospects. It will provide entrepreneurs with an idea of how to derive more benefits from their algal energy ventures. The report provides detailed case studies, success stories and factoids of companies that have been involved in the algae products venture. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

There is no other comprehensive report available for castor oil anywhere in the world. This is the first of its kind, and currently, the only one. More ››

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor, published by the Bioplastics Guide, is a unique guiding framework for businesses and entrepreneurs to chart a way forward provides a critical analysis of the status, opportunities & trends of the global bioplastics sector. More ››

Algae - Food and Feed

Edible Sea-weeds 

Hydrocolloids

Animal and Fish Feed

Algae-Useful Substances

Pigments

PUFAs

Vitamins

Anti-oxidants


Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

Algae in Pharmaceuticals


Use of algae, especially the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), for antibiotics and pharmacologically active compounds has received ever increasing interest. There are a range of pharmaceutical products derived from algae. Some of them include:

       Antimicrobials, Antivirals & Antifungals

       Neuroprotective Products

       Therapeutic proteins

       Drugs

 

1. Antimicrobials, Antivirals & Antifungals

Both Microalgae and macroalgae exhibit antimicrobial activity which finds use in various pharmaceutical industries.

Role of Microalgae

§  Microalgae, such as Ochromonas sp., Prymnesiumand a number of blue Green algae produce toxins that may have potential pharmaceutical applications (Katircioglu et al, 2006)

§  Various strains of Cyanobacteria are known to produce intracellular and extracellular metabolites with diverse biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity (Naoman et al,2004)

§  The biological activities of the algae may be attributed to the presence of volatile compounds, some phenols, free fatty acids and their oxidized derivatives (Zornitsa et al, 2009)

Role of macroalgae

§  There are numerous reports of macroalgae derived compounds that have a broad range of biological activities, such as antibiotic, antiviral, anti- neoplastic, antifouling, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antimitotic (Naqvi et al., 1980)

§  In the past few decades, macroalgae have been widely recognised as producers of a broad range of bioactive metabolites (Caccamese et al., 1981)

§  Such antimicrobial properties enable macroalgae to be used as natural preservatives in the cosmetic industry.

§  The highest percentage of antimicrobial activity was found in Phaeophyceae (84%), followed by Rhodophyceae (67%) and Chlorophyceae (44%). (Noemi et al, 2007)

§  Red and brown macroalgae extracts show significant potential as anti-pathogenic agents for use in fish aquaculture. (Wefky et al, 2008)

2. Neuroprotective Products

Both microalgae and macroalgae are neuroprotective agents and promote nerve cell survival.

Role of microalgae

Among the various microalgal species, Spirulina is most commonly referred as a neuroprotective agent

§  Spirulina platensis may be useful in the development of novel treatments for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson diseases.

§  Spirulina maxima is found to partially prevent MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine) neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, suggesting it could be a possible alternative in experimental therapy.

Role of macroalgae

§  Several macroalgae are found to possess therapeutic potential for combating neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation.

§  A marine macroalgae, Ulva conglobata, a marine algae, has neuroprotective effects in murine hippocampal and microglial cellshttp://bit.ly/9Iu2P9

 

3. Human Therapeutic Proteins

Pharmaceutical companies could substantially reduce the expense of costly treatments for cancer and other diseases produced from mammalian or bacterial cells by growing human therapeutic proteins in algae. Microalgae usually find extensive use as therapeutic and diagnostic proteins.

Role of microalgae

§  Expression of recombinant proteins in green algal chloroplast holds substantial promise as a platform for the production of human therapeutic proteins

§  The percentage of human proteins produced in their algal cultures is comparable to the fraction produced by mammalian cell cultures and much better than that produced by bacterial systems

§  A study confirmed that diverse human therapeutic proteins could be produced in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga

§  Algae can be used to produce

VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) for treating emphysema

HMGB1 (High Moblility Group Protein B1) which activates immune cells

Domain 14 of human fibronectin

Domain 10 of human fibronectin used to increase the accumulation of other proteins

Human proinsulin could be produced by algae, but only at lower levels

The costs of using algae at large scale to commercially produce human proteins should be much lower than for mammalian cell culture, which require expensive Fermentation facilities

4. Drugs

Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source.

Role of microalgae

§  Researchers have been able to produce an exciting class of anti-cancer drugs originally isolated from blue-green algae

§  A compound named cryptophycin 1 has been isolated from blue-green algae which hold significant promise as an anti-cancer drug

§  Microalgae produce incredibly potent alkaloidal neurotoxins such as saxitoxin and polyketide neurotoxins such as the brevetoxins for use as anticancer drugs.

§  Role of macroalgae

§  The alkaloids found in marine macroalgae present special interest because of their pharmacological activities.

§  These alkaloids in macroalgae are largely focused on finding drugs for cancer treatment.

 

Companies Deriving Pharmaceutical Products from Algae

Rincon Pharmaceuticals – www.rinconpharma.com/

Rallis – http://www.rallis.co.in/

Monsanto – http://www.monsanto.com/default.asp

Jubilant Organosys – http://www.jubl.com/

Piramal Healthcare – http://www.piramalhealthcare.com/

AstraZeneca – http://www.astrazenecaindia.com/

Idec Pharmaceuticals – www.idecpharm.com

National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria – http://www.nfmc.res.in/

Novo Nordisk India Private Ltd – http://www.novonordisk.co.in/documents/home_page/document/index.asp

Agri Life SOM Phytopharma (India) Limited – http://www.somphyto.com/

Labprocure India Pvt Ltd – http://www.pharmaceuticals1.com/organisation/labprocure-ind-pvt-ltd.html

 

 

The following table lists various algae used in medicine and their respective uses (Reference: Compendium of Materia Medica):

Phyllum

Genus

Use

Chlorophyta

Enteromorpha

Can be used to treat hemorrhoids, parasitic disease, goiter, asthma, coughing and bronchitis; they reduce fever and ease pain

Ulva

Can be used to treat goiter; reduce fever, ease pain, induce urination

Codium

Can be used to treat urinary diseases, treat edema, expel ascarid; is an ecbolic

Acetabularia

Can be used to treat urinary diseases and edema

Phaeophyta

Ishige

Can be used to treat cervical lymphadenitis, to diminish inflammation and to induce urination

Laminaria

Can be used to treat goiter, urinary diseases; is an ecbolic; contains iodine and potassium

Endarachne

Can be used to treat urinary diseases, edema, gastric diseases and hemorrhoids

Sargassum

Can be used to treat cervical lymphadenitis, edema; diminishes inflammation; reduces fever; induces urination; contains iodine and potassium

Rhodophyta

Porphyra

Can be used to treat goiter, bronchitis, tonsillitis and cough

Gelidium

Laxative; can be used to treat tracheitis, gastric diseases and hemorrhoids; can be used to extract agar

Pterocladiella

Laxative; can be used to treat tracheitis, gastric disease and hemorrhoids; can be used as an agar extract; can be used to make coating for pills

Eucheuma

Can be used to treat goiter, tonsillitis, bronchitis, asthma, cough, gastric diseases and hemorrhoids

Corallina

Marl, parasiticide

Gracilaria

Can be used to treat goiter, edema, urinary diseases, can prevent ulcer; can be used to as an agar extract and make coating for pills

Hypnea

Can be used to treat bronchitis, gastric diseases and hemorrhoids; can be used to make carragenate

Chondrus

Can be used to treat bronchitis, tonsillitis, gastric diseases, asthma and cough; is an adhesive, can be used to make carragenate

Centroceras

Can be used to treat gastro-intestinal intolerance

Chondria

Ascaricide

Grateloupia

Ascaricide; lowers blood pressure

Gloeopeltis

Can be used to treat goitre, tonsillitis and bronchitis; prevents high blood pressure and scurvy

 

 

Click Here to Know More

Spirulina

Chlorella

Poly unsaturated fatty acids(DHA,ARA,GAL and EPA)

Beta carotene

Astaxanthin

Chlorophyll

Phycoerythrin

Fucoxanthin

Aquaculture Feed (Shrimp feed, Shellfish Feed, Marine Fish Larve cultivation )

Carbon Credits

Algae Cosmetics

Paper from Algae

Agar

Alginates

Carrageenan

Algae Biopolymers

Algae Pharmaceuticals

Algae Wastewater treatment

Coenzyme Q10