Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››

Comprehensive Report on Attractive Algae Product Opportunities

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industrThe report provides an overview of the wide range of non-fuel applications of algae – both current and future prospects. It will provide entrepreneurs with an idea of how to derive more benefits from their algal energy ventures. The report provides detailed case studies, success stories and factoids of companies that have been involved in the algae products venture. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

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Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor

Bioplastics Market & Strategy Advisor, published by the Bioplastics Guide, is a unique guiding framework for businesses and entrepreneurs to chart a way forward provides a critical analysis of the status, opportunities & trends of the global bioplastics sector. More ››

Algae - Food and Feed

Edible Sea-weeds 


Animal and Fish Feed

Algae-Useful Substances





Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

Properties of Algae

When cultivating algae, several factors must be considered, and different algae have different requirements. Essential factors include water, carbon dioxide, minerals and light .The algae basically consist of the plant-like organisms (particularly, they are chloroplast-containing eucaryotes) that for the most part live in the sea, but also in freshwater as well as moist terrestrial habitats and as lichen endosymbionts.

Size and Structure

A thallus is the body of the vegetative form of algae. For single-celled algae, the thallus is just the single cell. For multi-celled algae, the thallus consists of the entire, continuous organism.

There also exist complex algae that superficially appear to be macroscopic, multicellular organisms but, upon closer inspection, are found to actually consist of one giant, coenocytic (single celled) thallus.

The aquatic habitat is a relatively benign and unchanging place, and its properties helped shape the organisms that live there. Because water supports the algal plant body, most algae lack rigidity, and usually undulate gently with water currents and waves. Since water surrounds the plant on all sides, individual algal cells absorb moisture and minerals directly from the surrounding. Plant shape also reflects this direct contact with water: Most algae are quite flattened, which maximizes the surface area for absorbing water, minerals, and sunlight.
  •     Mostly photosynthetic
  •     Photosynthetic pigments- four different kinds of chlorophyll
  •     accessory pigments- a variety, including blue, red, brown, golden
  •     Require moist environments (lack a waxy cuticle found in terrestrial plants)
  •     May be microscopic and float in surface waters (phytoplankton) or macroscopic and live attached to rocky coasts (seaweeds)
  •     Size ranges from size of bacteria (0.5 um) to over 50 m long (1 um = 1/25,000th inch; 1 m = 39 inches)


The water must be in a temperature range that will support the specific algal species being grown. Temperature vary with the species and strain cultured.  The optimal Temperature for phytoplankton cultures is generally between 20 and 30 C. Temperatures lower than 16 C slow down growth; Temperatures higher than 35 C are lethal for a number of species

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Light and Mixing

Light must not be too strong nor too weak. In most algal-cultivation systems, light only penetrates the top 3 inches (7.6 cm) to 4 inches (10 cm) of the water. This is because as the algae grow and multiply, they become so dense that they block light from reaching deeper into the pond or tank. Algae only need about 1/10th the amount of light they receive from direct sunlight. Direct sunlight is often too strong for algae.

In order to have ponds that are deeper than 4 inches algae growers use various methods to agitate the water in their ponds, thus circulating the algae so that it does not remain on the surface, which would cause it to be over-exposed. Paddle wheels can be used to circulate (stir) the water in a pond. Compressed air can be introduced into the bottom of a pond or tank to agitate the water, bringing algae from the lower levels up with it as it makes its way to the surface.

Apart from agitation, another means of supplying light to algae is to place the light in the system. Glow plates are sheets of plastic or glass that can be submerged into a tank, providing light directly to the algae at the right concentration.

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