Cottonseed – Cottonseed Oil as Biofuel
Cottonseed oil has energy per unit volume than diesel fuel. This means that more than one gallon of cotton seed oil will be required to replace one gallon of petro-diesel. The current production volumes are quite low ( 0.5 million T per annum in the US) when compared with even reasonable requirements of biodiesel.
- Economic Circumstances of Cottonseed Oil as Biodiesel (PDF)
- Biodiesel production by the Transesterification of cottonseed oil by solid acid catalysts - Chen He 1, Peng Baoxiang 1, Wang Dezheng and Wang Jinfu (Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) - Abstract Methyl esters (biodiesel) were produced by the transesterification of cottonseed oil with methanol in the presence of solid acids as heterogeneous catalysts. The solid acids were prepared by mounting H2SO4 on TiO2 · nH2O and Zr(OH)4, respectively, followed by calcining at 823K. TiO2-SO4 2− and ZrO2-SO4 2− showed high activity for the transesterification. The yield of methyl esters was over 90% under the conditions of 230°C, methanol/oil mole ratio of 12:1, reaction time 8 h and catalyst amount (catalyst/oil) of 2% (w). The solid acid catalysts showed more better adaptability than solid base catalysts when the oil has high acidity. IR spectral analysis of absorbed pyridine on the samples showed that there were Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the catalysts. Read more details & ordering information for the full report from here @ SpringerLink
- Characteristics of the performance and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine running with cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends with diesel fuel - Author: Constantine D. Rakopoulos, Kimon A. Antonopoulos, Dimitrios C. Rakopoulos, Emmanuel C. Kakaras, Efthimios G. Pariotis - Journal: International Journal of Vehicle Design 2007 - Vol. 45, No.1/2 pp. 200 - 221 - Abstract: An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the use of various blends of cottonseed oil or its methyl ester (bio-diesel) with diesel fuel, in blend ratios from 10/90 up to 100/0, in a fully instrumented, four-stroke, High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine. The tests were conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat fuels, with the engine working at a medium and a high load. Volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust-regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons were measured. The differences in the performance and exhaust emissions from the baseline operation of the engine, that is, when working with neat diesel fuel, were determined and compared, as well as the differences between cottonseed oil or its methyl ester and their blends. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion were used to aid the correct interpretation of the engine behaviour. Read the full details of this research from this page
Content derived from
Wikipedia article on Cottonseed Oil
Cottonseed oil - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds
of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. It must be
refined to remove gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin that protects the
cotton plant from insect damage. Therefore, unrefined cottonseed oil is
sometimes used as a pesticide. In its natural unhydrogenated state,
cottonseed oil, like all vegetable oils, has no cholesterol. It also contains
no trans fatty acids. However, it does contain over 50% Omega-6 fatty acids
and only trace amounts of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the imbalance is
considered unhealthy if not used in moderation or balanced elsewhere in the
diet. Further, these polyunsaturated fats can potentially go rancid during
the extraction process.
Cottonseed oil is rich in palmitic acid (22-26%), oleic
acid (15-20%), linoleic acid (49-58%) and 10% mixture of arachidic acid,
behenic acid and lignoceric acid. It also contains about 1% sterculic acids
and malvalic acids in the crude oil. The cyclopropene acids are undesirable
components, but they are largely removed during refining, particularly
deodorization, and also during hydrogenation. They are not considered to
present any health hazard in cottonseed oil.
Cottonseed oil is commonly used in manufacturing potato
chips and other snack foods. Along with soybean oil, it is very often
partially or fully hydrogenated. The growing consensus is that in
hydrogenated (trans fat) form these oils are very unhealthy. Cottonseed oil
was the first oil to be hydrogenated in mass production, originally intended
for candle production, and soon also as a food (as Crisco). In part because
regulations apply differently to non-food crops, it has also been suggested
that cottonseed oil may be highly contaminated with pesticide residues, but
insufficient testing has been done.
Cotton (oil) is also one of the big four (soy, corn, rapeseed/Canola, and cotton) genetically modified crops grown around the world.
^ Reports on GM Canola. from the Australian Department of Primary Industries
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