Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››


Comprehensive Report on Attractive Algae Product Opportunities

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industrThe report provides an overview of the wide range of non-fuel applications of algae – both current and future prospects. It will provide entrepreneurs with an idea of how to derive more benefits from their algal energy ventures. The report provides detailed case studies, success stories and factoids of companies that have been involved in the algae products venture. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

There is no other comprehensive report available for castor oil anywhere in the world. This is the first of its kind, and currently, the only one. More ››

Algae-Useful Substances

Pigments

PUFAs

Vitamins

Anti-oxidants


Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

New Technologies in Heavy Metals Removal from Wastewater

Clean Water the Clean Way

One product is the solution for problems over the decades in wastewater treatment, fish kills, dead zone, aquatic food chain, aquaculture, agriculture...

Nualgi facilitates the growth of diatoms. It prevents the growth of waterweeds, water hyacinth, Green algae and blue-green algae and other waste plants in lakes, ponds, rivers and other water bodies. Other algae like blue Green algae disrupt the ecosystem in water.

Wish to know more?...read more

Contact: Vinayak Bhanu

Mobile 0091 9840441078

Email [email protected]

The presence of large quantities of toxic metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc or others, poses serious health risks to humans, and this threat puts the scientific community under pressure to develop new methods to detect and eliminate toxic contaminants from wastewaters in efficient and economically viable ways.

This section provides details on the latest developments and efforts in general heavy metals removal from wastewater.

We have discussed the following:

  • Current Wastewater Treatment Process - Heavy Metals Removal
  • New Technologies in Heavy Metals Removal from Wastewater
    • Metal Removal from Wastewater Using Peat
    • A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal Using Fish Scales
    • Seashells for Heavy Metals Clean-Up
    • Toxic Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Waste Water by Membrane Filtration Of PGA-Based Nanoparticles
    • Novel Biofiltration Methods for the Treatment of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater
    • Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewaters by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared from an Agricultural Solid Waste
    • Physico–Chemical Treatment Techniques for Wastewater Laden with Heavy Metals
    • Microbial and Plant Derived Biomass for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater
    • Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Membrane Processes: A Comparative Study
    • Low-Cost Adsorbents for Heavy Metals Uptake from Contaminated Water: A Review

Current Wastewater Treatment Process - Heavy Metals Removal

The traditional method followed in industries to remove toxic heavy metal wastes is as follows:

 A heavy metal (in the form of ion) can be removed from waste water, by adding to the waste water a metal scavenger together with at least one of sodium monosulfide, sodium polysulfides and sodium hydrogensulfide to form a metal ion containing floc. The resulting floc is then removed from the waste water by filtration. The metal scavenger contains at least one carbodithio group and/or at least one carbodithioate salt group as N-substituents per molecule.

New Technologies in Heavy Metals Removal from Wastewater

Metal Removal from Wastewater Using Peat

Peat has been investigated by several researchers as a sorbent for the capture of dissolved metals from waste streams. The mechanism of metal ion binding to peat remains a controversial area with ion-exchange, complexation, and surface adsorption being the prevalent theories. Factors affecting adsorption include pH, loading rates, and the presence of competing metals. The optimum pH range for metals capture is generally 3.5–6.5. Although the presence of more than one metal in a solution creates competition for sorption sites and less of a particular ion may be bound, the total sorption capacity has been found to increase. Studies have also shown that metals removal is most efficient when the loading rates are low. In addition, recovery of metals and regeneration of the peat is possible using acid elution with little effect on peat’s sorption capacity.1

Advantages:

  • This method is simple, effective and economical means of pollution remediation.
  • Peat is plentiful and inexpensive.

A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal Using Fish Scales:

Effective removal of metal ions from industrial wastewater by using fish scales was studied in this article. A series of static tests was performed with 10 g of dried fish scale adsorbent pulverized to micron sizes of 37 or less. Such tests were conducted for lead ions (from lead nitrate solution) at concentrations of 25 ppm, 12.5 ppm, and 6.25 ppm. The dynamic equilibrium results were based on tests on 50 ppm of cobalt chloride solution (flow rate 1 ml/min), followed by 100 ppm of cobalt solution (flow rate 7 ml/min), and then a mixture of cobalt chloride (CoCl 2), lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2), zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2) solutions. The proposed sorption technique offers an acceptable solution for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater streams. The potential application of this study is an enormous energy cost savings in the electroplating industry, which requires the replacement of wastewater and the burial of metal sludge in landfills. Also, the trimming of energy costs in oil drilling and pipeline corrosion is possible by potential formation of biopolymers developed from "adsorbed scale." 2

Seashells for Heavy Metals Clean-Up

On the banks of the Saigon River in Viet Nam, researchers have completed tests on a new way to combat water pollution that could save millions of lives in coastal cities in the developing world. Toxic metals like cadmium, zinc, lead and iron were cleaned using seashells. Dr. Köhler’s team has found that pouring metal and acid-laden water over a bed of crushed clam or mussel shells provides an easy fix. The shells are made of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate that readily swaps its calcium atoms in favor of heavy metals, locking them into a solid form. The shells are alkaline – a pH of 8.3 when dissolved – and needs to be maintained so by adding more shells.3

Toxic Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Waste Water by Membrane Filtration of PGA-based Nanoparticles

Polymer enhanced ultrafiltration is a feasible method to remove metal ions from diluted waste water stream. Polyacids are widely investigated for this application. For separation of toxic heavy metal ions, including lead ions synthetic polymers and natural poly gamma glutamic acid (PGA) and other natural polymers have been investigated. In this study formation of nanoparticles of poly-gamma glutamic acid with bivalent metal ions is described. In aqueous solution the size of particles varies in the range of 50 nm to 350 nm depending on the pH. The stable nanoparticles were visualized by TEM measurements. The polyacid has high affinity and binds proportional toxic heavy metal ion. The polymer-lead complex was separated by ultrafiltration and the lead ions were concentrated in the retentate. The biopolymer is useful for treating waste water.4

Novel Biofiltration Methods for the Treatment of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater

Most heavy metals are well-known toxic and carcinogenic agents and when discharged into the wastewater represent a serious threat to the human population and the fauna and flora of the receiving water bodies. In the present review paper, the sources have discussed the industrial source of heavy metals contamination in water, their toxic effects on the fauna and flora and the regulatory threshold limits of these heavy metals. The various parameters of the biofiltration processes, their mechanism for heavy metals removal along with the kinetics of biofilters and its modeling aspects have been discussed. The comparison of various physico-chemical treatment and the advantages of biofiltration over other conventional processes for treatment of heavy metals contaminated wastewater have also been discussed. The applications of genetic engineering in the modification of the microorganisms for increasing the efficiency of the biofiltration process for heavy metals removal have been critically analyzed. The results show that the efficiency of the process can be increased three to six folds with the application of recombinant microbial treatment.5

Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewaters by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared From an Agricultural Solid Waste

Activated carbon was prepared from coirpith by a chemical activation method and characterized. The adsorption of toxic heavy metals, Hg(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) was studied using synthetic solutions and was reported elsewhere. In the present work the adsorption of toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters onto coirpith carbon was studied. The percent adsorption increased with increase in pH from 2 to 6 and remained constant up to 10. As coirpith is discarded as waste from coir processing industries, the resulting carbon is expected to be an economical product for the removal of toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters.6

Physico–Chemical Treatment Techniques for Wastewater Laden with Heavy Metals

This article reviews the technical applicability of various physico–chemical treatments for the removal of heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from contaminated wastewater. A particular focus is given to chemical precipitation, coagulation–flocculation, flotation, ion exchange and membrane filtration. Their advantages and limitations in application are evaluated. Their operating conditions such as pH, dose required, initial metal concentration and treatment performance are presented. About 124 published studies (1980–2006) are reviewed. It is evident from the survey that ion exchange and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied and widely applied for the treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater. Ion exchange has achieved a complete removal of Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L, respectively. The results are comparable to that of reverse osmosis (99% of Cd(II) rejection with an initial concentration of 200 mg/L). Lime precipitation has been found as one of the most effective means to treat inorganic effluent with a metal concentration of higher than 1000 mg/L. It is important to note that the overall treatment cost of metal-contaminated water varies, depending on the process employed and the local conditions. In general, the technical applicability, plant simplicity and cost-effectiveness are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment for inorganic effluent.7

Microbial and Plant Derived Biomass for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater

Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Conventional treatment technologies for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution are not economical and generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive non-living biomass of microbial or plant origin is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. Due to unique chemical composition biomass sequesters metal ions by forming metal complexes from solution and obviates the necessity to maintain special growth-supporting conditions. Biomass of Aspergillus nigerPenicillium chrysogenumRhizopus nigricansAscophyllum nodosumSargassum natansChlorella fuscaOscillatoria anguistissimaBacillus firmus and Streptomyces sp. have highest metal adsorption capacities ranging from 5 to 641 mg g−1 mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni. Biomass generated as a by-product of fermentative processes offers great potential for adopting an economical metal-recovery system. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of utilization of microbial and plant derived biomass and explores the possibility of exploiting them for heavy metal remediation.8

Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Membrane Processes: A Comparative Study

Wastewater containing copper and cadmium can be produced by several industries. The application of both reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) technologies for the treatment of wastewater containing copper and cadmium ions to reduce fresh water consumption and environmental degradation was investigated. Synthetic wastewater samples containing Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions at various concentrations were prepared and subjected to treatment by RO and NF in the laboratory. The results showed that high removal efficiency of the heavy metals could be achieved by RO process (98% and 99% for copper and cadmium, respectively). NF, however, was capable of removing more than 90% of the copper ions existing in the feed water. The effectiveness of RO and NF membranes in treating wastewater containing more than one heavy metal was also investigated. The results showed that the RO membrane was capable of treating wastewater with an initial concentration of 500 ppm and reducing the ion concentration to about 3 ppm (99.4% removal), while the average removal efficiency of NF was 97%. The low level of the heavy metals concentration in the permeate implies that water with good quality could be reclaimed for further reuse.9

Low-Cost Adsorbents for Heavy Metals Uptake from Contaminated Water: A Review

In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg2+, Cr6+, and Cd2+, respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb2+, Hg2+, and Cr6+, respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb2+). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.10

References

1Brown P. A., Gill S. A. and Allen S. J., 2000Metal removal from wastewater using peat. Water Research 34 (3907- 3916)

2Mustafiz S.; Basu A.; Islam M.R.; Dewaidar A.; Chaalal O, 2002. A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal using fish scales. Energy Sources, 24 (1043-1051).

3http://www.techmonitor.net/techmon/09sep_oct/wat/wam_wastewater.htm

4Bodnar M, Hajdu I, Hartmann J.F, Borbely J. Toxic Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Waste Water by Membrane Filtration of PGA-based Nanoparticles. Nanotech 2008 Conference Program Abstract.

5Srivastava NK, Majumder CB, 2008. Novel biofiltration methods for the treatment of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. J Hazard Mater. 151(1):1-8.

6Kadirvelu K, Thamaraiselvi K and Namasivayam C, 2001. Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from an agricultural solid waste. Biosource technology, 76 (63- 65).

7Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Gilbert Y.S. Chan, Wai-Hung Lo and Sandhya Babel, 2006. Physico–chemical treatment techniques for wastewater laden with heavy metals. Chemical Engineering Journal, 118 (83- 98).

8Sarabjeet Singh Ahluwalia and Dinesh Goyal, 2007. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Biosource Technology, 98 (2243- 57).

9Hani Abu Qdais and Hassan Moussa, 2004. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater by membrane processes: a comparative study. Desalination, 164 (105-110).

10Sandhya Babel and Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, 2003. Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 97 (219- 243). 

The presence of large quantities of toxic metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc or others, poses serious health risks to humans, and this threat puts the scientific community under pressure to develop new methods to detect and eliminate toxic contaminants from wastewaters in efficient and economically viable ways.

This section provides details on the latest developments and efforts in general heavy metals removal from wastewater.

We have discussed the following:

  • Current Wastewater Treatment Process - Heavy Metals Removal
  • New Technologies in Heavy Metals Removal from Wastewater
    • Metal Removal from Wastewater Using Peat
    • A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal Using Fish Scales
    • Seashells for Heavy Metals Clean-Up
    • Toxic Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Waste Water by Membrane Filtration Of PGA-Based Nanoparticles
    • Novel Biofiltration Methods for the Treatment of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater
    • Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewaters by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared from an Agricultural Solid Waste
    • Physico–Chemical Treatment Techniques for Wastewater Laden with Heavy Metals
    • Microbial and Plant Derived Biomass for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater
    • Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Membrane Processes: A Comparative Study
    • Low-Cost Adsorbents for Heavy Metals Uptake from Contaminated Water: A Review

Current Wastewater Treatment Process - Heavy Metals Removal

The traditional method followed in industries to remove toxic heavy metal wastes is as follows:

 A heavy metal (in the form of ion) can be removed from waste water, by adding to the waste water a metal scavenger together with at least one of sodium monosulfide, sodium polysulfides and sodium hydrogensulfide to form a metal ion containing floc. The resulting floc is then removed from the waste water by filtration. The metal scavenger contains at least one carbodithio group and/or at least one carbodithioate salt group as N-substituents per molecule.

New Technologies in Heavy Metals Removal from Wastewater

Metal Removal from Wastewater Using Peat

Peat has been investigated by several researchers as a sorbent for the capture of dissolved metals from waste streams. The mechanism of metal ion binding to peat remains a controversial area with ion-exchange, complexation, and surface adsorption being the prevalent theories. Factors affecting adsorption include pH, loading rates, and the presence of competing metals. The optimum pH range for metals capture is generally 3.5–6.5. Although the presence of more than one metal in a solution creates competition for sorption sites and less of a particular ion may be bound, the total sorption capacity has been found to increase. Studies have also shown that metals removal is most efficient when the loading rates are low. In addition, recovery of metals and regeneration of the peat is possible using acid elution with little effect on peat’s sorption capacity.1

Advantages:

  • This method is simple, effective and economical means of pollution remediation.
  • Peat is plentiful and inexpensive.

A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal Using Fish Scales:

Effective removal of metal ions from industrial wastewater by using fish scales was studied in this article. A series of static tests was performed with 10 g of dried fish scale adsorbent pulverized to micron sizes of 37 or less. Such tests were conducted for lead ions (from lead nitrate solution) at concentrations of 25 ppm, 12.5 ppm, and 6.25 ppm. The dynamic equilibrium results were based on tests on 50 ppm of cobalt chloride solution (flow rate 1 ml/min), followed by 100 ppm of cobalt solution (flow rate 7 ml/min), and then a mixture of cobalt chloride (CoCl 2), lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2), zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2) solutions. The proposed sorption technique offers an acceptable solution for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater streams. The potential application of this study is an enormous energy cost savings in the electroplating industry, which requires the replacement of wastewater and the burial of metal sludge in landfills. Also, the trimming of energy costs in oil drilling and pipeline corrosion is possible by potential formation of biopolymers developed from "adsorbed scale." 2

Seashells for Heavy Metals Clean-Up

On the banks of the Saigon River in Viet Nam, researchers have completed tests on a new way to combat water pollution that could save millions of lives in coastal cities in the developing world. Toxic metals like cadmium, zinc, lead and iron were cleaned using seashells. Dr. Köhler’s team has found that pouring metal and acid-laden water over a bed of crushed clam or mussel shells provides an easy fix. The shells are made of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate that readily swaps its calcium atoms in favor of heavy metals, locking them into a solid form. The shells are alkaline – a pH of 8.3 when dissolved – and needs to be maintained so by adding more shells.3

Toxic Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Waste Water by Membrane Filtration of PGA-based Nanoparticles

Polymer enhanced ultrafiltration is a feasible method to remove metal ions from diluted waste water stream. Polyacids are widely investigated for this application. For separation of toxic heavy metal ions, including lead ions synthetic polymers and natural poly gamma glutamic acid (PGA) and other natural polymers have been investigated. In this study formation of nanoparticles of poly-gamma glutamic acid with bivalent metal ions is described. In aqueous solution the size of particles varies in the range of 50 nm to 350 nm depending on the pH. The stable nanoparticles were visualized by TEM measurements. The polyacid has high affinity and binds proportional toxic heavy metal ion. The polymer-lead complex was separated by ultrafiltration and the lead ions were concentrated in the retentate. The biopolymer is useful for treating waste water.4

Novel Biofiltration Methods for the Treatment of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater

Most heavy metals are well-known toxic and carcinogenic agents and when discharged into the wastewater represent a serious threat to the human population and the fauna and flora of the receiving water bodies. In the present review paper, the sources have discussed the industrial source of heavy metals contamination in water, their toxic effects on the fauna and flora and the regulatory threshold limits of these heavy metals. The various parameters of the biofiltration processes, their mechanism for heavy metals removal along with the kinetics of biofilters and its modeling aspects have been discussed. The comparison of various physico-chemical treatment and the advantages of biofiltration over other conventional processes for treatment of heavy metals contaminated wastewater have also been discussed. The applications of genetic engineering in the modification of the microorganisms for increasing the efficiency of the biofiltration process for heavy metals removal have been critically analyzed. The results show that the efficiency of the process can be increased three to six folds with the application of recombinant microbial treatment.5

Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewaters by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared From an Agricultural Solid Waste

Activated carbon was prepared from coirpith by a chemical activation method and characterized. The adsorption of toxic heavy metals, Hg(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) was studied using synthetic solutions and was reported elsewhere. In the present work the adsorption of toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters onto coirpith carbon was studied. The percent adsorption increased with increase in pH from 2 to 6 and remained constant up to 10. As coirpith is discarded as waste from coir processing industries, the resulting carbon is expected to be an economical product for the removal of toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters.6

Physico–Chemical Treatment Techniques for Wastewater Laden with Heavy Metals

This article reviews the technical applicability of various physico–chemical treatments for the removal of heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from contaminated wastewater. A particular focus is given to chemical precipitation, coagulation–flocculation, flotation, ion exchange and membrane filtration. Their advantages and limitations in application are evaluated. Their operating conditions such as pH, dose required, initial metal concentration and treatment performance are presented. About 124 published studies (1980–2006) are reviewed. It is evident from the survey that ion exchange and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied and widely applied for the treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater. Ion exchange has achieved a complete removal of Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L, respectively. The results are comparable to that of reverse osmosis (99% of Cd(II) rejection with an initial concentration of 200 mg/L). Lime precipitation has been found as one of the most effective means to treat inorganic effluent with a metal concentration of higher than 1000 mg/L. It is important to note that the overall treatment cost of metal-contaminated water varies, depending on the process employed and the local conditions. In general, the technical applicability, plant simplicity and cost-effectiveness are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment for inorganic effluent.7

Microbial and Plant Derived Biomass for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater

Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Conventional treatment technologies for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution are not economical and generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive non-living biomass of microbial or plant origin is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. Due to unique chemical composition biomass sequesters metal ions by forming metal complexes from solution and obviates the necessity to maintain special growth-supporting conditions. Biomass of Aspergillus nigerPenicillium chrysogenumRhizopus nigricansAscophyllum nodosumSargassum natansChlorella fuscaOscillatoria anguistissimaBacillus firmus and Streptomyces sp. have highest metal adsorption capacities ranging from 5 to 641 mg g−1 mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni. Biomass generated as a by-product of fermentative processes offers great potential for adopting an economical metal-recovery system. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of utilization of microbial and plant derived biomass and explores the possibility of exploiting them for heavy metal remediation.8

Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Membrane Processes: A Comparative Study

Wastewater containing copper and cadmium can be produced by several industries. The application of both reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) technologies for the treatment of wastewater containing copper and cadmium ions to reduce fresh water consumption and environmental degradation was investigated. Synthetic wastewater samples containing Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions at various concentrations were prepared and subjected to treatment by RO and NF in the laboratory. The results showed that high removal efficiency of the heavy metals could be achieved by RO process (98% and 99% for copper and cadmium, respectively). NF, however, was capable of removing more than 90% of the copper ions existing in the feed water. The effectiveness of RO and NF membranes in treating wastewater containing more than one heavy metal was also investigated. The results showed that the RO membrane was capable of treating wastewater with an initial concentration of 500 ppm and reducing the ion concentration to about 3 ppm (99.4% removal), while the average removal efficiency of NF was 97%. The low level of the heavy metals concentration in the permeate implies that water with good quality could be reclaimed for further reuse.9

Low-Cost Adsorbents for Heavy Metals Uptake from Contaminated Water: A Review

In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg2+, Cr6+, and Cd2+, respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb2+, Hg2+, and Cr6+, respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb2+). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.10

References

1Brown P. A., Gill S. A. and Allen S. J., 2000Metal removal from wastewater using peat. Water Research 34 (3907- 3916)

2Mustafiz S.; Basu A.; Islam M.R.; Dewaidar A.; Chaalal O, 2002. A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal using fish scales. Energy Sources, 24 (1043-1051).

3http://www.techmonitor.net/techmon/09sep_oct/wat/wam_wastewater.htm

4Bodnar M, Hajdu I, Hartmann J.F, Borbely J. Toxic Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Waste Water by Membrane Filtration of PGA-based Nanoparticles. Nanotech 2008 Conference Program Abstract.

5Srivastava NK, Majumder CB, 2008. Novel biofiltration methods for the treatment of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. J Hazard Mater. 151(1):1-8.

6Kadirvelu K, Thamaraiselvi K and Namasivayam C, 2001. Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from an agricultural solid waste. Biosource technology, 76 (63- 65).

7Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Gilbert Y.S. Chan, Wai-Hung Lo and Sandhya Babel, 2006. Physico–chemical treatment techniques for wastewater laden with heavy metals. Chemical Engineering Journal, 118 (83- 98).

8Sarabjeet Singh Ahluwalia and Dinesh Goyal, 2007. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Biosource Technology, 98 (2243- 57).

9Hani Abu Qdais and Hassan Moussa, 2004. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater by membrane processes: a comparative study. Desalination, 164 (105-110).

10Sandhya Babel and Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, 2003. Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 97 (219- 243). 



Hot Algae Products (Click to know more)
Omega 3 Spirulina Astaxanthin Chlorella