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Greatest Biodiesel Extraction Can Be Done From Chlorophyceae Algaes 8

The Chlorophyceae are a large and important group of freshwater green algae. They include some of the most common species, as well as many members that are important both ecologically and scientifically.
There are approximately 350 genera and 2650 living species of chlorophyceans. They come in a wide variety of shapes and forms, including free-swimming unicellular species, colonies, non-flagellate unicells, filaments, and more. They also reproduce in a variety of ways, though all have a haploid life-cycle, in which only the zygote cell is diploid. The zygote will often serve as a resting spore, able to lie dormant though potentially damaging environmental changes such as dessication.
The Chlorophyceae includes three major groups distinguished primarily by basic differences in the arrangement of their flagellae:
? Volvocales, Chaetophorales, & Chlorococcales - together make up more than half of all chlorophyceans. Members of these orders have an offset flagellar arrangement (1 o'clock-7 o'clock).
? Chlorellales - Members of this order have opposed flagellae (12 o'clock-6 o'clock), though some have only vestigial flagellae and so have not been definitively associated with this group. Similarities with members of the Chlorococcales make distinctions difficult.
? Oedogoniales - Members of this smallest group have a complex multiflagellate crown on their swimming spores. All are filamentous, oogamous, and have net-like chloroplasts.
Chlorophycean Diversity : Above are shown representatives of the three major groups of Chlorophyceae. From left to right, these are Chlamydomonas (Volvocales); Pediastrum (Chlorellales); and Oedogonium (Oedogoniales). The pictures also serve to show some of the structural diversity of chlorophyceans; these are (again, from left to right): unicells, colonies, and filaments.

Perhaps the most famous and important chlorophyceans are Chlamydomonas and Volvox. Both are important research organisms in biological laboratories. Volvox, pictured at the top of this page, is a model organism for understanding cell death and cell interactions. Chlamydomonas, pictured above at left, though tiny and single-celled has been useful in countless studies, including freshwater ecology, cell division, physiology, genetic structure and function, and genomic evolution.
No less important are the Chlorellales, especially Chlorella. Though only about ten species are known in this genus, it plays an important role as endosymbionts inside the tissues of other organisms. Sponges, polyps, ciliates, and forams all may house Chlorella internally, providing a home for the alga in exchange for its photosynthates. More recently, this tiny alga has become popular as a "health food" for its concentrated proteins and chlorophyll, and is now raised commercially in large numbers, especially in Asia.
Many other species of Chlorophyceae are common. Oedogonium grows in freshwater worldwide, usually attached to other plants or algae; it has been a subject of intense study for its unusual cell division method. Species of Chlorococcales are frequently found in soil or mud, and some, such as Apatococcus may be found growing in bright green patches on walls and the sides of trees where moist conditions prevail.

The oldest fossils resembling Chlorophyceans come from the Proterozoic Bitter Springs Formation of central Australia. There is insufficient preservation to make a firm identification of these fossils, but other multicellular algae are known from this time (Butterfield et al. 1988), so the identification is not unreasonable.
Additionally fossils of this group have been found in Middle Devonian rocks from New York State (Baschnagel 1966). Among these is Paleooedogonium, a fossil with striking resemblance to modern Oedogonium. The presence of this fossil and those of other freshwater green algae in the Devonian suggests that the group was quite diverse by this time.
Tertiary fossils of modern chlorophycean genera are also known, such as Scenedesmus in the Chlorellales (Fleming 1989), Pediastrum and Botryococcus (Gray 1960), and Tetraedon (Goth et al. 1988). The last of these is believed to be an important component in the formation of oil shales of the Tertiary, such as those in Messel, Germany.

In my view the greatest oil extraction can be done from this algae.
Please give your views.
Sun August 15 2010 10:47:21 AM by Vivek 3341 views

Comments - 7

  • Shankar wrote:
    Mon August 16 2010 04:26:44 AM

    Thank You very much for the information,I will experiment on B. braunii too...
    Keep suggesting me..........

    Vote Up! 1 Vote Down! 0

  • Mon August 16 2010 05:05:06 AM

    Check this out too

    Vote Up! 1 Vote Down! 0

  • Vivek wrote:
    Mon August 16 2010 05:55:51 AM

    Thanks a Lot for your suggestion.
    I will pay heed on all.....
    Keep suggesting me.....

    Vote Up! 0 Vote Down! 0

  • Shankar wrote:
    Mon August 16 2010 06:23:26 AM

    Hi Vivek
    Am an investor and keep reading a lot.
    my knowledge is not upto speed on technological matters.
    But I think Botryococcus Braunii Algae is most suited for biodiesel.

    B. braunii is a prime candidate for biofuel production because some races of the green algae typically accumulate hydrocarbons from to 30 percent to 40 percent of their dry weight, and are capable of obtaining hydrocarbon contents up to 86 percent of their dry weight.

    I am saying all this from my memory of having read
    it in this club, wikipeadia, oilgae.com, its mailing letter etc.,

    B. braunii is capable of producing great amounts of hydrocarbon oils in a very small land area.

    Take my words with a pinch of salt. Get expert opinion from our club itself.
    The fuels derived from B. braunii hydrocarbons are chemically identical to gasoline, diesel and kerosene.
    do not bother to call them biodiesel or bio-gasoline; call simply diesel and gasoline.

    To produce these fuels from B. braunii, the hydrocarbons are processed exactly the same as petroleum is processed and thus generates the exact same fuels.

    Like most green algae, B. braunii is capable of producing great amounts of hydrocarbon oils in a very small land area.

    B. braunii algae has high production of oil and the type of oil they produce, is similar to petroleum.

    You can probably get these info in wiki or Oilgae.com sites.

    Remember, these B. braunii hydrocarbons are a main constituent of petroleum.

    So there is no difference other than the millions of years petroleum spent underground.

    But, a drawback of B. braunii is its growth rate.

    The algae that produce vegetable-type oils may double their every 6 to 12 hours, B. braunii's doubling rate is about four days.

    B. braunii is more time consuming and more costly..

    Vote Up! 4 Vote Down! 0

  • Mon August 16 2010 01:18:08 PM

    Shankar, Everything you say in your post is mostly correct. The main goal as I now see it is to use algae or ? to convert CO2 at the fastest possible rate into biomass. Lets have a doubling of numbers in 30 minutes not 3 days. Once we have the biomass then we can treat it and tweek it with chemistry into the products that make the most economic sense. My goal is to capture the most "old" carbon (carbon that comes from below the surface of mother earth) and transform that old carbon into a useful new carbon product (biofuel)etc. that will replace the need to pump,
    mine,etc. old sequestered carbon. Once carbon goes up the smoke stack or out the exhaust it becomes 'new' carbon, ....bad,bad.

    Vote Up! 2 Vote Down! 0

  • Vivek wrote:
    Mon August 16 2010 03:52:38 PM

    Thank You SAM and Mia for your suggestion......
    Now started working in this so I need a lot of suggestion....
    Please keep suggesting me...

    Vote Up! 0 Vote Down! 1

  • Emily wrote:
    Mon August 16 2010 10:59:46 PM

    Alan is right.

    First make biomass from algae.
    Cost effectively in large scale.
    Then we can do many things with it.

    Vote Up! 0 Vote Down! 0

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