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Blogs under tag Macroalgae

A Response........ Posted by AlgaeNova on Tue March 15 2011 04:22:27 PM 3

Dear Oilgae friends,
first of all an excuse to all the ones that have
written to me and which I have not answered yet. Please forgive me - it
is not that I am lazy - but a project in Africa where we might insatll a
biogas unit with attached algae bio- reactor to capture the CO² - all
that for a cattlefarming/meat production industry to get ridd if former
disturbing an polluting abattoir waste and liquid manure by bio
fermentation, methan gas production for generating electricity and
nutrient rich feed supply with the same (I might give a detailed
discription of these synergies later9, has kept me busy for a long time.

the less do I think it is time to give some examples again how to use
algae other than burning it up to extend the live of fossile

Algae as a Source of Pharmaceuticals
& Nutraceuticals

article here on OILGAE calls for further information and clarification about
this item.

While microalgae can be
cultivated in PBR`s or ponds, the major part of macro algae usefull for
pharmaceutical and cosmetic  applications
live in the oceans . The biological effectiveness of these medical/cosmetic
compounds on algae basis and their quality strongly depends on their origin,
time of harvest, method of harvest and 
the treatment and conversion. Often used macro algae harvesting methods
are “trawlers” ripping the algae species out of their seabed, but also the
collection of algae material from the beaches and shores after heavy storm is
being practised. Due to the growing demand this methods are neither economical
nor very sustainable – in fact it`s just another violation of natures resources.

This asks for a careful cultivation
method that takes nature and the preservation of biodiversity into
consideration. Here I would like to describe a macro algae cultivation method
for the species Saccharina
syn. Laminaria saccharina.

For the
culturing and easy harvest of Laminaria it is the best method to get the spores
of this algae specie onto a culturing rope. This happens in specially designed
pools where pieces of 1000 meters rope are being  prepared for so to be set out in open
seawater. Artificial nutrients are not welcome and not necessary as these pools
are being floated with fresh seawater. During this process the temperature has
to be cooled down to under 18 degrees (for this type- Laminaria).

algae reproduce similar to ferns or fungi by spores. This approach will help to
settle the spores onto the culturing ropes to develop the algae body of the
leaf-like “Phylloid”, the stem-like “Cauloid” and the root-like “Rhiozid”.

At the
junction between Cauloid and Phylloid there is a regenerative zone, the
“Meristem” which enables the algae to grow again after the algae has being cut
of or died off. When harvesting it is therefore important to cut off the algae
above this regenerative zone. If all the growing ropes are taking in – again
new lines have to be prepared according to above giving procedure.

Extractable compounds:

These macro algae are rich
on vitamins, minerals and trace elements which the algae accumulates in form of
a great number of different polysaccharides from the
ocean waters and thus making them available for a great number of
health/healthcare products. Beside calcium, magnesium, iron and potassium they
contain trace elements like iodine, cobber, zinc, selenium as well as
manganese, strontium, molybdenum and germanium. This wide range of vitamins
includes beside the vitamins A, C and E, niacin and folic acid the whole
vitamin B-complex including the vitamin B-12 which otherwise is only present in
animal products. All these components are important for our immune defence but
also for the skin, the hair and nails and the connective tissue.

High-grade unsaturated fatty acids:

Algae are the only
source  for eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA) and docosahexaenoic
(DHA) which are elsewhere only present in fish oil because they are
accumulated through their food chain. These seldom
 omega-3 fatty acids
are among others extremely important fort the membrane stability especially of
the skin.

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA)

Some of  the algae, but as well other organisms are
building mycosporine
like amino acids (MAA), UV-light absorbing substances (see former article
>>> Light Management!) serving as “natural sunscreen”. They are
absorbing shortwave sun rays und convert them into harmless heat.


Of special significance for
the cosmetic industry are the outstanding polysaccharides which are present in
different types of algae, performable in 
red- and brown macro algae. Here we can name the alginic acids and their
salts, - alginate, carrageenan as well as fucoidan, glucans, fucose and other,
partly yet unknown algae sugars.

a. alginic acids and alginate:

Brown algae contain as a
characteristic compound of their cell walls mainly phycocolloid fucoidan and
alginate, salts of alginic acids. The alginate contents depends on specie and
which season of the year and can be between 15 – 40% of the dry-weight. For the
production of alginate compounds only the few sort from the genus Laminariales
(specie Saccharina) and Fucales (specie Fucus) are in use today. Worldwide
yearly production of alginate is approx. 40.000 tonnes. The greatest producers
are the
USA, France, Norway, Great Britain, Canada, Japan and China.

Alginic acid ( INCI-term:
ALGIN) is a mixture from polyuronic acids with changing amounts
of 1,4-ß-D-mannuronic acid and
α-L-guluronic acid. In relation to the
dry-weight alginic acid  contains a
minimum of 19%, the most 25% carboxyl groups, whereby as small
part can be neutralized. The alginate molecules are placed as tight packed
strands in the cell-walls, whereby the carboxylate groups from uronic acids are
tied together by bivalent cations as there are Ca²+ and Mg²+ as well as other
trace elements. The molecular mass of native alginic acid lies between 150.000
and 250.000 Da. During the isolation process a degradation takes place that can
lead to a molecule mass between 30.000 and 60.000 Da. This very different
relation of the molecular strands has great influence on the viscosity quality
of the final product.

Not only
in the cosmetic industry, also in other areas, as there is the food-industry,
pharmaceutical industry and the medicine, alginic acids and their salts are
being used for theit characteristic   sol
– and gel properties, their emulsion and suspension stabilising effect as well
as their film forming ability and for the cation exchange (
quantity of positively charged ions

products are: Sodium alginate
- calcium salt mixtures for dental impression materials
and also calcium alginate is being used as absorbent material for interactive
wound dressing, sodium alginate in  spray
plasters and wound dressings. The wound material has a styptic and curing
effect as a “hämostypticum” as it immediately forms, when in contact with blood
and its Ca²+ content, a membrane of unsolvable calcium alginate serving as
protective colloid, sealing the wound.

b. Carrageen and carragenane:

(INCI: CARRAGENAN)  is an umbrella term
for a number of different polysaccharides produced by special macro red algae
species. Different organic compounds are distinguished  by their amount of  galactose and 3-anhydrogalactose as well
as their number of sulphate groups. Of interest for industrial use are premolar
κ-, І- und λ-Carrageen, which all are different in their physicochemical characteristics. Also offered under the product name
Carrageenane are commercial products with very different solution – and gel
forming characteristics. These are mostly alkali treated carrageen or extracts
or extracts fractions. Carragen finds its use in the food industry as gelling-
and thickening agent. The cosmetic industry uses it for the production of
toothpaste. Presently production culture of different red-algae species is going
on in the
Philippines, whereby it has
been achieved to produce homogenous and commercial interesting types of

c. ß-1,3-glucane

This polysaccharide from
algae shows in a great number of trials immune activating qualities
(macrophages) and are therefore being used for the treatment of cancer. In
particular  phycarin stimulates the  humoral and cellulare  immune response through an inter-action with
CD11b / CD18 receptors.  The
anti-inflammatory effect of phycarin  is
attributable to the p-selectine inhibition, whereby the molecular size and the
degree of sulfation  are of great
importance. Luminaran, the storage substance of the brown-algae belongs as well
to the important β-1,3- glucanes, showing heparin- like characteristics and
stimulates the immune system as well.

d) fucoidan


phycocolloide fucoidane is
typical for the brown algae and only produced by them. Neither in other algae
species, nor in other plants has this phycocolloide been detected. According to
the IUPAC definition are sulphated fucanes polysaccharides, mainly
consisting of sulphated L-fucose (6-Deoxy-L-Galactose) containing less than 10%
of other monosaccharides. Structural research has shown that fucoidane is not a
homogenous  class of substance, but with
great difference in terms of  molecular
masses, grade of sulfation as well as its pattern. There are as well a number
of variations in the glycosidic fixations and the sugar composition. Typical
structural feature are
L-Fucose-4-O-sulfat-units, which are ramified in position 2, acetylated or
substituted with a second sulphate group. Beside all this there are also
α-1,4- and α-1,2-linkrd fucose compositions with or without
a sulphate group or a ramification.


became more and more of interest for science in these last years for their
great variety of pharmacological properties. Anti-coagulation, antithrombotic activity, carcinostatic and immune
modulating properties,
enormous antioxidative
effect, reduction of blood fat values, the anti-complement
activity and anti-inflammatory
effects. Of further interest in all this
combination is a distinctive antiviral activity such as
herpes viruses as well. The use of fucoidane for cosmetics is based on research
about the effects on certain main requirements.

A stimulating effect of low-molecular fucoinade on the collagen
synthesis was verified and the anti-aging-effect are explained to be the result
of a reduction of skin thickness due to the use of extracts containing aqueous
fucoidane containing solutions which also enhance the elasticity of the skin.


e. Oligo- and polysaccharide rich
with fucose (FROP)

These fucose-rich polymeric carbohydrate structures are playing their role
in cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix junctions. They stimulate the cell proliferation. Suppressing 
the  metallo- protein matrix (MMP)
and stimulating the collagen and elastin
synthesis in fibroblasts increases
the  elasticity of the skin
and connective tissue and influence the aging effect.

Publications about the extractable compounds of Laminaria:

Pubmed  All publication can be found on Pubmed.

Aguilera J., Dummermuth A., Karsten u.,
Schriek R., Wiencke Ch.
(2002) Enzymatic defences against photooxidative
stress induced by ultraviolet radiation in Arctic marine macroalgae
, Polar
biology 2002, vol. 25, no 6, pp. 432-441

Aquaron R., Delange F., Marchal P., Lognoné V., Ninane L. (2002) Bioavailability
of seaweed iodine in human beings
., Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002

As an
important fraction of consumers in the world prefers natural products over
artificial ones, we investigated the industrial feasibility of naturally
iodized salt using seaweed as source of iodine.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und
Lebensmittelsicherheit, Untersuchungsergebnisse 2008: Jod- und
Schwermetallgehalte in algenhaltigen Kosmetika

Bilan M.I.,
Grachev A.A., Shashkov A.S., Kelly M., Sanderson C.J., Nifantiev N.E., Usov
A.I. (2010) Further studies on the composition and structure of a fucoidan
preparation from the brown alga Saccharina latissima.
, Carbohydr Res. Vol.

accordance with the previous data, the main polysaccharide component was shown
to be a fucan sulfate [...]. In addition, three other types of sulfated
polysaccharide molecules were detected in the total fucoidan preparation [...].

Brunschweiger E.-M., Pharmakologische
Wirkung von Meerwasser
, in: Schleswig-Holsteinisches Ärzteblatt 6/2005, S.

Bundesamt für Risikobewertung (BfR), Gesundheitliche
Risiken durch zu hohen Jodgehalt in getrockneten Algen
, aktualisierte
Stellungnahme Nr. 026/2007 des BfR vom 22. Juni 2004

Bund/Länder-Messprogramm Meeresumwelt (BLMP),
2005: Zustandsbericht 1999–2002 für Nordsee und Ostsee 

Croci D.O., Cumashi A., Ushakova N.A.,
Preobrazhenskaya M.E., Piccoli A., Totani L., Ustyuzhanina N.E., Bilan M.I.,
Usov A.I., Grachev A.A., Morozevich G.E., Berman A.E., Sanderson C.J., Kelly
M., Di Gregorio P., Rossi C., Tinari N., Iacobelli S., Rabinovich G.A.,
Nifantiev N.E. (2011) Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the
Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria
saccharina Brown Seaweed.
, PLoS One. 6(2):e17283.

sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory,
anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated
polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed.

Cumashi A,
Ushakova NA, Preobrazhenskaya ME, D'Incecco A, Piccoli A, Totani L, Tinari N,
Morozevich GE, Berman AE, Bilan MI, Usov AI, Ustyuzhanina NE, Grachev AA,
Sanderson CJ, Kelly M, Rabinovich GA, Iacobelli S, Nifantiev NE (2007) A
comparative study of the anti-in
anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antiadhesive activities of nine different
fucoidans from brown seaweeds
., Glycobiology vol. 17 no. 5 pp. 541–552

fucoidans inhibited leucocyte recruitment in an inflammation model in rats, and
neither the content of fucose and sulfate nor other structural features of
their polysaccharide backbones significantly affected the efficacy of fucoidans
in this model.

Davis T.A.,
Voleskya B., Mucci A. (2003) A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal
biosorption by brown algae
., Water Research 37 (2003) 4311–4330

specifically, it is the properties of cell wall constituents, such as alginate
and fucoidan, which are chiefly responsible for heavy metal chelation.

Ch., Schubert R., Jahreis G. (2006) Amino acids, fatty acids, and diatary
fible in edible seaweed products
, Food Chemistry 103 (2007) 891-899

the FA distribution of seaweed products showed high levels of n-3 FA and
demonstrated a nutritionally ideal n-6/n-3 FA ratio. The predominante FA in
various seaweed products was eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5,n-3) which was at
concentrations as high as 50% of total FA content.

C., Schäfer U., Leiterer M., Jahreis G. (2007) Nutritional and toxicological
importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products
J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12;55(25):10470-5


Douady D.,
Rousseau B., Caron L. (1994) Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting
complexes of Laminaria saccharina: partial amino acid sequences and
arrangement in thylakoid membranes
., Biochemistry. 1994 Mar

Drozd N.N.,
Tolstenkov A.S., Makarov V.A., Kuznetsova T.A., Besednova N.N., Shevchenko
N.M., Zvyagintseva T.N. (2006) Pharmacodynamic parameters of anticoagulants
based on sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae
., Bull Exp Biol Med.
2006 Nov;142(5):591-3

I, Bizbiz L, Schoevaert D, Robert AM, Robert L. (2003) Effect of L-fucose
and fucose-rich oligo- and polysaccharides (FROP-s) on skin aging: penetration,
skin tissue production and fibrillogenesis
., Biomed Pharmacother. 2003

results, together with the previous favorable activities on the downregulation
of matrix-degrading enzymes, free radical scavenging and increased cell
proliferation confirm the favorable action of fucose and fucose-rich
polysaccharides (FROP-s) on the skin by slowing down its aging.

T., Tsukahara K., Moriwaki S., Kitahara T., Sano T., Takema Y. (2002) Treatment
of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus chanoes its thickness and
mechanical properties
, J. Cosmet. Sci., 53, 1-9

In this
study, they investigated the effects of topical application of an aqueous
extract of this alga on the thickness and the mechanical properties of human
skin. [...] These results suggest that the Fucm vesiculosus extract possesses
anti-aging activities and should be useful for a variety of cosmetics.

Guiry M.D.
and Blunden G. (1991) Seaweed Ressources in
Europe: Uses and Potential

Han J.,
Kang S., Choue R., Kim H., Leem K., Chung S., Kim C., Chung J. (2002) Free
radical scavenging effect of Diospyros kaki, Laminaria japonica and Undaria
pinnatifida., Fitoterapia
. 2002 Dec;73(7-8):710-2

Isnard N,
Fodil-Bourahla I, Robert AM, Robert L. (2004) Pharmacology of skin aging.
Stimulation of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis by L-fucose and fucose-rich
polysaccharides, effect of in vitro aging of fibroblasts
., Biomed
Pharmacother. 2004 Apr;58(3):202-4

stimulations of GAG-biosynthesis might play a role in the increase of total
skin thickness of hairless rats treated with L-fucose, as well as in several
other favorable results recorded for FROP-3 such as the increased hydration
(resistance to pressure) and elasticity of human skin

Jin D.Q.,
Li G., Kim J.S., Yong C.S., Kim J.A., Huh K. (2004) Preventive effects of
Laminaria japonica aqueous extract on the oxidative stress and xanthine oxidase
activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver
., Biol Pharm Bull.
2004 Jul;27(7):1037-40

results suggest that Laminaria japonica would be of great value in preventing
hyper-glycemia in diabetes mellitus as a dietary supplement possibly, through
its antioxidant activity.

Kim K.H.,
Kim Y.W., Kim H.B., Lee B.J., Lee D.S. (2006) Anti-apoptotic activity of
laminarin polysaccharides and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides
from Laminaria japonica
., Biotechnol Lett. 2006 Mar;28(6):439-46

results suggest that laminarin oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be
utilized to develop new immunopotentiating substances and functional
alternative medicines.

F.C., Carpenter L.J., McFiggans G.B., Palmer C.J., Waite T.J., Boneberg E.M.,
Woitsch S., Weiller M., Abela R., Grolimund D., Potin P., Butler A., Luther
G.W. 3rd, Kroneck P.M., Meyer-Klaucke W., Feiters M.C. (2008) Iodide
accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric
, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13;105(19):6954-8

x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide,
which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose
here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to
be described in a living system. ... In a complementary set of experiments
using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in
human blood cells.

Li N, Zhang
Q, Song J (2005) Toxicological evaluation of fucoidan extracted from
Laminaria japonica in Wistar rats
., Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Mar;

results showed that no significant toxicological changes were observed when
300 mg/kg body weight per day fucoidan was administered to rats.

A.M., Mouson A.,
Delzenne N.M. (2007) Dietary
supplementation with laminarin, a fermentable marine beta (1-3) glucan,
protects against hepatotoxicity induced by LPS in rat by modulating immune
response in the hepatic tissue.
, Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Dec
5;7(12):1497-506 , Comment in: Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Mar;8(3):514-5;
discussion 516-7

Nishide E.,
Anzai H., Uchida N. and Nisizawa K. (1990) Sugar constituents of
fucose-containing polysaccharides from various Japanese brown algae
., Hydrobiologia
Vol. 204-205, No. 1

C., Thomas J.C., Caron L., Hauswirth N., Puel F., Berkaloff C. (1991) Light-harvesting
complexes of brown algae. Biochemical characterization and immunological
, FEBS Lett. 1991 Mar 11;280(1):21-6


G, Robert AM, Robert L. (2003) Protection by L-fucose and fucose-rich
polysaccharides against ROS-produced cell death in presence of ascorbate
Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 May-Jun;57(3-4):130-3

appeared that relatively low concentrations of L-fucose and FROP-3 (Biomed.
Pharmacother. in press) could efficiently protect fibroblasts from the
ascorbate-induced cell-death. These novel pharmacological properties of
L-fucose and FROP-3 might well be related to their accelerating effect of wound

Robert L,
Fodil-Bourahla I, Bizbiz L, Robert AM. (2004) Effect of L-fucose and
fucose-rich polysaccharides on elastin biosynthesis, in vivo and in vitro
Biomed Pharmacother. 2004 Mar;58(2):123-8

results show that L-fucose and FROP-3 stimulate tropoelastin biosynthesis in
vitro, and elastic fibre formation in vivo.

D.I., López-Hernández J., Paseiro-Losada P., López-Cervantes J. (2004) An
HPLC method for the quantification of sterols in edible seaweeds
., Biomed
Chromatogr. 2004 Apr;18(3):183-90

predominant sterol was fucosterol in brown seaweeds (83-97% of total sterol

Senni K.,
Gueniche F., Foucault-Bertaud A., Igondjo-Tchen S., Fioretti F.,
Colliec-Jouault S., Durand P., Guezennec J., Godeau G., Letourneur D. (2006) Fucoidan
a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae is a potent modulator of connective
tissue proteolysis
., Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Jan 1;445(1):56-64.

tissue sections of human skin in ex vivo experiments, we evidenced that this
polysaccharide was able to minimize human leukocyte elastase activity resulting
in the protection of human skin elastic fiber network against the enzymatic
proteolysis due to this serine proteinase.

D.B., Macken A., Morrison L., Morley N. (2004) Zinc concentrations in marine
macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic
grouping, habitat and morphology
., Mar Pollut Bull. 2004 May;48(9-10):902-9

T., Matsubara K., Akagi R., Mori M., Hirata T. (2006) Antiangiogenic
activity of brown algae fucoxanthin and its deacetylated product, fucoxanthinol
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9805-10

Usov A.I.
; Smirnova g.p. ; Bilan M.I. ; Shashkov A.S. (1998) Polysaccharides
of Algae. 53. Brown Alga Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lam. as a Source
of Fucoidan
, Russ J Bioorgan Chem (1998) 24:437–445.

was found to contain L-fucose and sulfate as major components and galactose,
xylose, and glucuronic acid as minor components.

Voronova Y.G.,
Rekhina N.I., Nikolaeva T.A., Tiunova N.A., Zailina I.V.,
Kobzeva N.YA., Valiente O. (2006) Extraction of carbohydrates from
Laminaria and their utilization
, Journal of Applied Phycology (2006) Vol.
3, No. 3

Wang J.,
Zhang Q., Zhang Z., Li Z. (2008) Antioxidant activity of sulfated
polysaccharide fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica.
, Int J Biol
Macromol. 2008 Mar 1;42(2):127-32

correlation between the sulfate content and scavenging superoxide radical
ability was positive. Available data obtained with in vitro models suggested
that the ratio of sulfate content/fucose was an effective indicator to
antioxidant activity of the samples.

Xue Chang-Hu,
Yu Fang, Hong Lin, Lei Chen, Li Zhao-Jie, Deng Deng, Lu Chong-Xiao
(2001) Chemical characters and antioxidative properties of sulfated
polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica,
Journal of Applied Phycology
(2001) Vol. 13, No. 1

Yan X.,
Zheng L., Chen H., Lin W., Zhang W. (2004) Enriched accumulation and
biotransformation of selenium in the edible seaweed Laminaria japonica
., J
Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 20;52(21):6460-4

implied that kelp L. japonica could effectively transform inorganic selenium
into organic selenium through metabolism.

Yuan Y.V.,
Walsh N.A. (2006) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracts
from a variety of edible seaweeds
, Food and Chemical Toxicology 44 (2006)

T.N., Shevchenko N.M., Nazarova I.V., Scobun A.S., Luk'yanov P.A., Elyakova
L.A. (2000) Inhibition of complement activation by water-soluble
polysaccharides of some far-eastern brown seaweeds
., Comp Biochem Physiol C
Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;126(3):209-15