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Nano Nutrients for Improvement of Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Remediation.


T.Sampath Kumar, Nualgi Nanobiotech, Bangalore-560 041

March 29, 2008

Abstract

A new patented Nano nutrient called NUALGI has been developed. The Product has all the plant growth micronutrients in the nano form and is biologically available for plant absorption. This can be used as a foliar spray / drip irrigation for all crops to remedy micronutrient deficiencies and increase crop yields. Nualgi can also be used to grow diatom algae in any water including sewage polluted water. The growing diatoms absorb CO2 and nutrients by photosynthesis and release Oxygen at the micro plant level. The Oxygen released helps aerobic bacteria breakdown organics in the water into base constituents. The stinking odor from anaerobic system is eliminated and the growing diatoms are eaten by zooplankton that is in turn consumed by fishes. The fishes clean up the lakes of all diatoms, zooplankton and organics, thus restoring the polluted lakes and water bodies to its original glory.  

INTRODUCTION

Nutrients are required by all plants for growth and productivity. Plants growing on the land pick up nutrients from the soil and those growing in water pick it up from the water. If the nutrients are not present in the soil/water, or in a biologically available form then deficiencies are caused that leads to loss of crop yield. The soil composition, soil pH, humus content and other factors determine the biological availability of nutrients in land. Environmental remediation of sewage polluted water is a challenge.

OBJECTIVES

 It is desirable to remedy imbalances in micronutrient availability to crops using a nano nutrient that is economical, efficient and easy to use. It is also desirable to clean up polluted water bodies from organic wastes generated from pollutants and sewage. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of Nualgi in delivering the micronutrients to the plants and cleaning up of polluted water bodies.

CURRENT PRACTICES

Soil pH correction, increasing humus content by using organic fertilizers, adding inorganic fertilizers , adding micronutrients inorganic and chelated form, foliar sprays etc are some of the current practices to correct micronutrient imbalances in crops.

Sewage polluted water bodies generally become eutrophied releasing H2S gases that give bad smell and become infested with water weeds and plants like hyacinth. They also are the breeding place for mosquitoes. World over the accepted technology is the activated sludge process having aerators and allied equipment. This process is slow, involving capital equipment and has high running cost.

PROBLEMS OF CURRENT PRACTICES.

Soil pH correction is expensive and difficult. Addition of Organic fertilizers is expensive and difficult to procure, and involves considerable labor and it requires time for correction. The manifestations of deficiencies are complex in nature and apparent symptoms may not reveal the details. Some deficiencies do not have symptoms. Most plants do not exhibit molybdenum deficiency syndrome. The agriculturalist will suffer the lack of productivity without knowledge of the problem.

Foliar spraying of individual micronutrient is difficult, tedious and sometimes problematic. Most of the micronutrients are expensive. Chelated ones are more expensive. Although the requirement is extremely small, in practice, the quantity used is quite large resulting in higher expenditure. The high costs put a barrier to the extensive and regular usage of micronutrient fertilization. A simple, easy to use, and economical solution is just not available. 

As far as environment is concerned most of the sewage is let out into the water bodies with little treatment. People live with the problems of bad smell, water contamination, water borne diseases and mass fish kills. Even the bore well water is contaminated with excessive nitrites, nitrates and other organic compounds. The monsoons wash away the problems to the sea where the dinoflagellates proliferate causing red tides and other problems.

Unless the organics are removed from the water bodies, problems will persist. The expanding population in large geographical area and high costs prevent the wastes from being properly treated.

SOLUTIONS PROPOSED

Although the conditions of soil and water are vastly different from place to place, all plants need micronutrients for growth. We have developed and patented a plant growth nutrient in the nano form called ‘NUALGI’. All micronutrients required for plant growth are available in Nualgi and they are chemically and biologically stable in water without gelling or precipitating out. The material dispersed in water looks like a solution but has very fine particles of the size estimated to be 20 to 150 nanometers.  The particles are not visible to the naked eye or under compound microscope. Nualgi contains P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, S, Co, Mo, Si etc in a balanced form.

When Nualgi is sprayed on to crops by way of a foliar spray, the micronutrients in the nano form are easily absorbed by the leaves and soon the deficiencies are rectified.  Thus periodical application of Nualgi will result in enhancement of agricultural productivity. It is recommended that 100 gms of Nualgi dissolved in 100 liters of water can be sprayed on to 1 acre of crops once in 15 days to solve most problems. Dosage may be increased based on the severity of the problems.

Nualgi can grow diatom algae in any water including sewage water. The growing diatoms absorb CO2 and nutrients and release O2 by photosynthesis. The diatoms also produce food that is eaten by zooplankton. The O2 produced helps aerobic bacteria break down organics in the water into its constituents thus cleaning up the water. The suspended solids break down into nutrients, gases and sludge. Fishes let into the water will consume diatoms, zooplankton and organics thus cleaning up the water.

The water gets oxygenated, thus helping fish to live, and the same water containing nano nutrients will be helpful for growing agricultural crops. The growing diatoms not only produce oxygen but also consume nutrients like nitrates and phosphates, thus removing it from the water body. All polluted water bodies can be cleaned up by this method.

In a certain location called Puttenahalli Lake in Bangalore there was a mass fish kill due to depletion of dissolved oxygen on 15th and 16th of June 2005. On orders from The Karnataka Pollution control board, Nualgi was dosed on to the pond to rectify the problem. We have given below the readings of dissolved oxygen in the pond before dosing of Nualgi and after 5 days. This reading is as per the certificate given by the board.

Date of reading.  Parameters.          Unit          Results in various points.

                                                                     D1          D2         D3          D4          D5

16/06/05          Dissolved oxygen     mg/L       0.5          1.5          1.0         2.2          0.9

21/06/05          Dissolved oxygen     mg/L       4.2          7.0          5.0         9.5          8.7

In 5 days there has been a substantial improvement in the dissolved oxygen of the water body after dosing of Nualgi.

NOTE ON TECHNOLOGY OF NUALGI

Nualgi is made by a complex process and the same has been patented. Indian patent no. 209364 dated 27/08/07. Patents have been filed in 6 countries world wide. After considerable research and field trials the product has been used successfully in a number of places.


USES OF NUALGI

  1. For use as a nano nutrient foliar spray/drip      irrigation for land based plants to increase micronutrient availability,      correct imbalances and increase agricultural productivity.
  2. In ETP / STP plants Nualgi can be added to the source      effluent for faster and efficient processing, removing bad odor, faster      reduction of BOD and cleaner treated water and increase in capacity of      treatment.
  3. For adding to Sewage / effluent to be sent to lagoon      / river / lake, where fishes can be grown along with the cleaning up of      water. In a few days there will not be any trace of the sewage and water      color will be light green / golden brown with very good dissolved oxygen.      In this case there is no requirement for a capital investment for ETP      plants and all our rivers and lakes can be cleaned of all sewage      pollution.
  4. For adding to large lakes like Dal lake in Kashmir,      for cleaning up polluted Yamuna, Ganga rivers, Cooum in Chennai etc      without any capital investment. The dissolved oxygen will increase and the      organics will break down and become food for the fishes. The per capita      protein availability can be increased in the country along with reduction      in pollution of the water bodies.
  5. Wild life thrives on nutrition and food availability.      Adding Nualgi to lakes increases the fish population especially Tilapia      enormously. The availability of fishes brings migrating birds like cranes      and pelicans into the vicinity of the lakes helping tourism and satisfying      nature enthusiasts. In Bangalore we added      to Madivala Lake and we had Pelicans flocking      to the place last November when the fishes were abundant.
  6. Removing and crashing out of Blue green algae from      lakes or water bodies having this problem without affecting the fishes or      the drinking water quality.
  7. For preventing wild growth of water weeds like water      hyacinth etc by improving water quality.
  8. For growth of phytoplankton in the seas to absorb      global carbon dioxide and reduce global warming.
  9. Preventing and solving MASS FISH KILL in water bodies      due to oxygen depletion.
  10. Used in water ponds inside hotels and restaurants and      beautiful places to prevent the stale and fungus smell.
  11. To prevent formation of red tides in the sea formed      due to the proliferation of dinoflagellates that help growth of jelly fish      instead of finfish. This situation is caused primarily by the dumping of      untreated waste into the sea. The red tides also cause shell fish      poisoning.
  12. In brewery waste treatment the waters are acidic due      to dissolved CO2 generated in the fermentation process. On      using Nualgi the dissolved CO2 will be absorbed by the growing      diatoms thus reducing the acidity of the water and avoiding the use of      caustic soda for neutralization.
  13. The Nualgi treated effluent is far superior for      agriculture use since it has higher availability of trace micronutrients      in a biologically available form suitable for plant growth. We have      observed that mosquitoes do not breed in the oxygenated water. However      scientific studies have to be conducted and facts established.

WHERE HAS IT BEEN TESTED?

  1. As a foliar spray we have tried in a number of places      over varied crops. (a)      We could solve the chlorosis caused by iron deficiency in sapota      plants.(b) In potato      plants in an area near Sakleshpur, Hassan district the plants flowered      within 2 days of application whereas in the entire area the flowering had      not started for the crops sowed at the same time.(c) In SSIT Tumkur the Nualgi      added pond water when used for gardening brought about a 6” higher grass      growth that was greener than the surrounding.                                                    
  2. We are already selling the product for aquaculture in      AP, KA, TN, Or, & Mh for the development of diatom bloom, growth of      zooplankton leading to development of the food chain.
  3. We have treated several sewage laden lakes in Bangalore like the Madivala      Lake, Ulsoor      Lake, Vengayyana kere, Puttenahalli Lake, etc. In a number of cases      there was fish kill and we solved the problem. The licensees are growing      fish in the lakes.
  4. We have done tests in Sewage treatment plants of the      BWSSB in Yelahanka, Chennai sewage treatment plant at Nesapakkam, Jindal      ayurvedic hospital’s sewage treatment plant Bangalore and stopped the H2S      generation in the plant. But we could not get a certificate from them      since there was no H2S measuring instrument there at that time.
  5. We have tested in M/s.Mysore Breweries Bangalore and      got valuable experience and good results.
  6. M/s. Ashok Leyland have mentioned the utility of our      product in their Corporate Social Responsibility Report 2005-06 under      Innovation in Safety, Health and Environment. The report is available in      the Internet under this site: in page 5

http://www.ashokleyland.com/images/downloads/presentations/CSR_report_final1.pdf       .

  1. We are selling this product to M/s. Cochin Sea Foods,      Palavakkam, Chennai for treatment of the marine food processing waste      effluent water.
  2. We have treated a pond adjoining a library in SSIT,      Tumkur and have solved a major problem of blue green algae and foul smell.

HOW IS IT USED?

For use as a nano nutrient to remedy micronutrient deficiencies in crops, 100 gms of Nualgi is dissolved in 100 lts of water and sprayed on to a crop of one acre once in 15 days. Higher dosage may be added based on severity of deficiency. This will solve the problems and increase agricultural productivity.

For environmental remediation of lakes and ponds, Nualgi has to be taken in 60 mesh net and dissolved in water and added by bucket or mug to the water body. It is recommended that about 1-2 kg of Nualgi is used per 4000 m3 of water (4 million liters). The dissolution can also be made in a Sintex tank and the flow may be adjusted on to the sewage effluent. The efficacy of the product is increased by higher dilution. The test for determining the quantity of Nualgi required depends on the ultimate dissolved oxygen of the treated water. One has to optimize.

CONCLUSION

Foliar spraying of Nualgi on to crops solves micronutrient deficiency problems. Even for general crops where deficiency are not detected it helps to increase crop yields and reduce incidences of pests and diseases caused by imbalances in nutrients. This method is a great boon to ordinary agriculturists who can rapidly increase their agricultural productivity at a negligible cost. We urge scientists to carry out extensive trials using Nualgi for all crops including mulberry leaves that can increase silk production considerably.

Application of the patented product NUALGI to polluted water bodies is a fast and economical alternative to the conventional ETP plants in treating sewage and other organic wastes. Benefits include converting the waste into wealth in the form of fishes, restoring the water quality and the environment, and improving the habitat of the birds and animals in the nature. 

T.Sampath Kumar

CEO Nualgi Nanobiotech

651, 11th main, 5th block,

Jayanagar, Bangalore-560 041

Tel(080) 26591524, 26595314

E mail: sampath651@hotmail.com

Web: www.nualgi.com



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