Content derived from Wikipedia
article on Solar Power
Solar power is the technology of obtaining usable energy
from the light of the Sun. Solar Energy has been used in many traditional
technologies for centuries and has come into widespread use where other power
supplies are absent, such as in remote locations and in space.
Solar energy is currently used in a number of
Heat (hot water, building heat, cooking)
Electricity generation (photovoltaics, heat engines)
Desalination of seawater.
Energy from the Sun
After passing through the Earth's atmosphere, most of the
sun's energy is in the form of visible and Infrared radiations. Plants use
solar energy to create chemical energy through photosynthesis. Humans
regularly use this energy burning wood or fossil fuels, or when simply eating
A recent concern is global dimming, an effect of pollution that is allowing less sunlight to reach the Earth's surface. It is intricately linked with pollution particles and global warming, and it is mostly of concern for issues of global climate change, but is also of concern to proponents of solar power because of the existing and potential future decreases in available solar energy. The order of magnitude is about 4% less solar energy available at sea level over the timeframe 1961–90, mostly from increased reflection from clouds back into outer space.
Types of technologies
Many technologies have been developed to make use of solar radiation. Some of these technologies make direct use of the solar energy (e.g. to provide light, heat, etc.), while others produce electricity.
Solar design in architecture
Solar design in architecture involves the use of appropriate solar technologies to maintain a building’s environment at a comfortable temperature through the sun's daily and annual cycles. It may do this by storing solar energy as heat in the walls of a building, which then acts to heat the building at night. Another approach is to keep the interior cool during a hot day by designing in natural convection through the building’s interior.
Solar heating systems
Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. They
may be used to heat domestic hot water or for space heating. These systems
are basically composed of solar thermal collectors and a storage tank. The
three basic classifications of solar water heaters are:
Active systems which use pumps to circulate water or a heat transfer fluid.
Passive systems which circulate water or a heat transfer fluid by natural circulation. These are also called thermosiphon systems.
Batch systems using a tank directly heated by sunlight.
A Trombe wall is a passive solar heating and ventilation
system consisting of an air channel sandwiched between a window and a
sun-facing wall. Sunlight heats the air space during the day causing natural
circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall and storing heat
in the thermal mass. During the evening the Trombe wall radiates stored heat.
A transpired collector is an active solar heating and ventilation system consisting of a perforated sun-facing wall which acts as a solar thermal collector. The collector pre-heats air as it is drawn into the building's ventilation system through the perforations. These systems are inexpensive and commercial models have achieved efficiencies above 70%. Most systems pay for themselves within 4-8 years.
Solar Cookers use sunshine as an alternative to fire for cooking.A solar box cooker traps the sun's energy in an insulated box; such boxes have been successfully used for cooking, pasteurization and fruit canning. Solar cooking is helping many developing countries, both reducing the demands for local firewood and maintaining a cleaner breathing environment for the cooks.
The first known western solar oven is attributed to Horace de Saussure in 1767, which impressed Sir John Herschel enough to build one for cooking meals on his astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope in Africa in 1830. Today, there are many different designs in use around the world.
Solar lighting or daylighting is the use of natural light
to provide illumination. Daylighting offsets energy use in electric lighting
systems and reduces the cooling load on HVAC systems (this assumes that daylighting
is replacing incandescent lighting, which produces more heat than light). The
use of natural light also offers physiological and psychological benefits,
although this is difficult to quantify.
Daylighting features include building orientation, window
orientation, exterior shading, sawtooth roofs, clerestory windows, light
shelves, skylights and light tubes. These features may be incorporated in
existing structures but are most effective when integrated in a solar design
package which accounts for factors such as glare, heat gain, heat loss and
time-of-use. Architectural trends increasingly recognize daylighting as a
cornerstone of sustainable design.
Daylight saving time (DST) can be seen as a method of utilising solar energy by matching available sunlight to the hours of the day in which it is most useful. DST energy savings have been estimated to reduce total electricity use in California by 0.5% (3400 MW·h) and peak electricity use by 3% (1000 MW).
The solar panels (photovoltaic arrays) on this small yacht
at sea can charge the 12 V batteries at up to 9 A in full, direct sunlightSolar
cells, also referred to as photovoltaic cells, are devices or banks of
devices that use the photovoltaic effect of semiconductors to generate electricity
directly from sunlight. Until recently, their use has been limited because of
high manufacturing costs. One cost effective use has been in very low-power
devices such as calculators with LCDs. Another use has been in remote
applications such as roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, cathodic
protection of pipe lines, and limited "off grid" home power
applications. A third use has been in powering orbiting satellites and
Total peak power of installed PV is around 1,700 MW as of
the end of 2005. This is only one part of solar-generated electric power.
Declining manufacturing costs (dropping at 3 to 5% a year
in recent years) are expanding the range of cost-effective uses. The average
lowest retail cost of a large photovoltaic array declined from $7.50 to $4
per watt between 1990 and 2005. With many jurisdictions now giving tax and
rebate incentives, solar electric power can now pay for itself in five to ten
years in many places. "Grid-connected" systems - those systems that
use an inverter to connect to the utility grid instead of relying on
batteries - now make up the largest part of the market.
In 2003, worldwide production of solar cells increased by 32%. Between 2000 and 2004, the increase in worldwide solar energy capacity was an annualized 60%. 2005 was expected to see large growth again, but shortages of refined silicon have been hampering production worldwide since late 2004. Analysts have predicted similar supply problems for 2006 and 2007.
Solar thermal electric power plants
Solar thermal energy can be focused on a heat exchanger, and converted in a heat engine to produce electric power or applied to other industrial processes.
Power towers use an array of flat, movable mirrors (called heliostats) to focus the sun's rays upon a collector tower (the target). The high energy at this point of concentrated sunlight is transferred to a working fluid for conversion to electrical energy in a heat engine, or in some instances, stored for nighttime usage, in order to provide a more continuous output.
A long row of parabolic mirrors concentrates sunlight on a tube filled with a heat transfer fluid (usually oil). As with the power tower, this heated oil is used to power a conventional steam turbine, or stored for nighttime use. The largest operating solar power plant, as of 2007, is one of the SEGS parabolic trough systems in the Mojave Desert in California, USA.
Concentrating collector with steam engine
Solar energy converted to heat in a concentrating collector can be used to boil water into steam (as is done in nuclear and coal power plants) to drive a steam engine or steam turbine. The concentrating collector can be a trough collector, parabolic collector, or power tower.
Concentrating collector with Stirling engine
A parabolic solar collector concentrating the sun's rays
on the heating element of a Stirling engine. The entire unit acts as a solar
tracker. Solar energy converted to heat in a concentrating (dish or trough
parabolic) collector can be used to drive a Stirling engine, a type of heat
engine which uses a sealed working gas (i.e. a closed cycle) and does not
require a water supply.
Until recently, a solar Stirling system held the record for converting solar energy into electricity (30% at 1,000 watts per square meter). Such concentrating systems produce little or no power in overcast conditions and incorporate a solar tracker to point the device directly at the sun. That record has been broken by a so-called concentrator solar cell produced by Boeing-Spectrolab which claims a conversion efficiency of 40.7 percent.
Solar updraft tower
A solar updraft tower (also known as a solar chimney, but this term is avoided by many proponents due to its association with fossil fuels) is a relatively low-tech solar thermal power plant where air passes under a very large agricultural glass house (between 2 and 8 km in diameter), is heated by the sun and channeled upwards towards a convection tower. It then rises naturally and is used to drive turbines, which generate electricity.
An energy tower is an alternative proposal to the solar
updraft tower. It is driven by spraying water at the top of the tower,
evaporation of water causes a downdraft by cooling the air thereby increasing
its density, driving Wind turbines at the bottom of the tower. It requires a
hot arid climate and large quantities of water (seawater may be used) but
does not require the large glass house of the solar updraft tower.
A solar pond is simply a pool of water which collects and
stores solar energy. It contains layers of salt solutions with increasing
concentration (and therefore density) to a certain depth, below which the solution
has a uniform high salt concentration. It is a relatively low-tech, low-cost
approach to harvesting solar energy. The principle is to fill a pond with 3
layers of water:
A top layer with a low salt content.
An intermediate insulating layer with a salt gradient, which sets up a density gradient that prevents heat exchange by natural convection in the water.
A bottom layer with a high salt content which reaches a temperature approaching 90 degrees Celsius.
The layers have different densities due to their different salt content, and this prevents the development of convection currents which would otherwise transfer the heat to the surface and then to the air above. The heat trapped in the salty bottom layer can be used for heating of buildings, industrial processes, generating electricity or other purposes. One such system is in use at Bhuj, Gujarat, India and another at the University of Texas El Paso.
Solar chemical is any process that harnesses solar energy
by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction in a way similar to
Photosynthesis in plants but without using living organisms. No practical
process has yet emerged.
A promising approach is to use focused sunlight to provide
the energy needed to split water into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen in
the presence of a metallic catalyst such as zinc.
While metals, such as zinc, have been shown to drive photoelectrolysis
of water, more research has focused on semiconductors. Further research has
examined transition metal compounds, in particular titanium, niobium and
Unfortunately, these materials exhibit very low
efficiencies, because they require ultraviolet light to drive the photoelectrolysis
of water. Current materials also require an electrical voltage bias for the
hydrogen and oxygen gas to evolve from the surface, another disadvantage.
Current research is focusing on the development of materials capable of the
same water splitting reaction using lower energy visible light.
It is also possible to use solar energy to drive industrial chemical processes without a requirement for fossil fuel.
The oil in plant seeds, in chemical terms, very closely
resembles that of petroleum. Many, since the invention of the Diesel engine,
have been using this form of captured solar energy as a fuel comparable to petrodiesel—for
functional use in any diesel engine or generator and known as biodiesel.
A 1998 joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) traced many of the various
costs involved in the production of Biodiesel and found that overall, it
yields 3.2 units of fuel product energy for every unit of fossil fuel energy
Other biofuels include Ethanol wood for stoves, ovens and furnaces, and methane gas produced from biofuels through chemical processes.
Classifications of solar power technology
Solar power technologies can be classified in a number of
Photovoltaic cells produce electricity directly from sunlight
Direct or Indirect
In general, direct solar power involves a single
transformation of sunlight which results in a usable form of energy.
Sunlight hits a photovoltaic cell creating electricity.
Sunlight warms a thermal mass.
Sunlight strikes a solar sail on a space craft and is converted directly into a force on the sail which causes motion of the craft.
Sunlight strikes a light mill and causes the vanes to rotate as mechanical energy, little practical application has yet been found for this effect.
In a direct solar water heater the water heated in the collector is used in the domestic water system.
Sunlight which is not reflected provides direct lighting.
In general, indirect solar power involves multiple
transformations of sunlight which result in a usable form of energy.
Vegetation uses photosynthesis to convert solar energy to
chemical energy. The resulting biomass may be burned directly to produce heat
and electricity or processed into ethanol, methane, hydrogen and other biofuels.
Hydroelectric dams and wind turbines are powered by solar
energy through its interaction with the Earth's atmosphere and the resulting
Ocean thermal energy production uses the thermal gradients
present across Ocean depths to generate power. These temperature differences
are produced by sunlight.
Fossil fuels are ultimately derived from solar energy
captured by vegetation in the geological past.
In an indirect solar water heater the fluid heated in the
collector transfers its heat through a heat exchanger to a separate domestic
Sunlight reflected off a ceiling or other surface provides indirect lighting.
Passive or active
This distinction is made in the context of building construction
and building services engineering.
Passive solar systems use non-mechanical techniques of
capturing, converting and distributing sunlight into usable outputs such as
heating, lighting or ventilation. These techniques include selecting materials
with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate
air and referencing the position of a building to the sun.
Passive solar water heaters use a thermosiphon to
A Trombe wall circulates air by natural circulation and
acts as a thermal mass which absorbs heat during the day and radiates heat at
Clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights and light
tubes can be used among other daylighting techniques to illuminate a
Passive solar water distillers may use capillary action to
Active solar systems use electrical and mechanical components such as photovoltaic panels, pumps and fans to process sunlight into usable outputs.
Concentrating or non-concentrating
A large parabolic reflector solar furnace is located in
the Pyrenees at Odeillo, French Cerdagne. It is used for various research
purposes. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and
tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam capable
of producing high temperatures and correspondingly high thermodynamic
efficiencies. Concentrating solar is generally associated with solar thermal
applications but concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications exist as well
and these technologies also exhibit improved efficiencies. CSP systems
require direct insolation to operate properly.
Concentrating solar power systems vary in the way they
track the sun and focus light.
A solar trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector
which concentrates light on a receiver positioned along the reflector's focal
line. These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun. A working
fluid (oil, water) flows through the receiver and is heated up to 400 °C before
transferring its heat to a distillation or power generation system. Trough
systems are the most developed CSP technology. The Solar Electric Generating
System (SEGS) plants in California and Plataforma Solar de Almería's SSPS-DCS
plant in Spain are representatives of this technology.
A power tower consists of an array of flat reflectors
(heliostats) which concentrate light on a central receiver located on a
tower. These systems use dual-axis tracking to follow the sun. A working fluid
(air, water, molten salt) flows through the receiver where it is heated up to
1000 °C before transferring its heat to a power generation or energy storage
system. Power towers are less advanced than trough systems but they offer
higher efficiency and energy storage capability. The Solar Two in Daggett,
California and the Planta Solar 10 (PS10) in Sanlucar la Mayor, Spain are
representatives of this technology.
A parabolic dish or dish/engine system consists of a
stand-alone parabolic reflector which concentrates light on a receiver
positioned at the reflector's focal point. These systems use dual-axis
tracking to follow the sun. A working fluid (hydrogen, helium, air, water)
flows through the receiver where it is heated up to 1500 °C before transferring
its heat to a sterling engine for power generation. Parabolic dish systems
display the highest solar-to-electric efficiency among CSP technologies and
their modular nature offers scalability. The Stirling Energy Systems (SES)
and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) dishes at UNLV and
the Big Dish in Canberra, Australia are representatives of this technology.
Non-concentrating photovoltaic and solar thermal systems
do not concentrate sunlight. While the maximum attainable temperatures (200
°C) and thermodynamic efficiencies are lower, these systems offer simplicity
of design a have the ability to effectively utilize diffuse insolation.
Flat-plate thermal and photovoltaic panels are representatives of this
Advantages and disadvantages of solar power
The 89 petawatts of sunlight reaching the earth's surface
is plentiful compared to the 15 terawatts of average power consumed by
humans. Additionally, solar electric generation has the highest power density
(global mean of 170 W/m2) among renewable energies.
Solar power is pollution free during use. Production end
wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls.
End-of-use recycling technologies are under development.
Facilities can operate with little maintenance or
intervention after initial setup.
Solar electric generation is economically competitive
where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible.
Examples include satellites, island communities, remote locations and ocean
When grid connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost electricity during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions), can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power for use in times of darkness and high local demand; such application is encouraged by net metering. Time-of-use net metering can be highly favorable to small photovoltaic systems.
Grid connected solar electricity can be used locally thus
minimizing transmission/distribution losses (approximately 7.2%).
Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power
plant has been spent, operating costs are low when compared to existing power
Polysilicon Solar cells are costly, requiring a large
initial capital investment, and silicon shortages raise prices. Costs are
expected to come down, however, due to increased manufacturing, economies of
scale and Balance of System planning. Thin film technology uses less silicon;
and Lease/Rental options* are currently being introduced.
Limited power density: Average daily insolation in the
contiguous U.S. is 3-9 kW·h/m2 usable by 7-17.7% efficient solar panels.
To get enough energy for larger applications, a large number
of photovoltaic cells is needed. This increases the cost of the technology
and requires a large plot of land.
Like electricity from nuclear or fossil fuel plants, it can only realistically be used to power transport vehicles by converting light energy into another form of stored energy (e.g. battery stored electricity or by electrolysing water to produce hydrogen) suitable for transport.
Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC when
used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of
Availability of solar energy
There is no shortage of solar-derived energy on Earth.
Indeed the storages and flows of energy on the planet are very large relative
to human needs.
The amount of solar energy intercepted by the Earth every
minute is greater than the amount of energy the world uses in fossil fuels
Tropical oceans absorb 560 trillion gigajoules (GJ) of solar energy each year, equivalent to 1,600 times the world’s annual energy use.
The energy in the winds that blow across the United States
each year could produce more than 16 billion GJ of electricity—more than one
and one-half times the electricity consumed in the United States in 2000.
Annual photosynthesis by the vegetation in the United States
is 50 billion GJ, equivalent to nearly 60% of the nation’s annual fossil fuel
Plants, on average, capture 0.1% of the solar energy
reaching the Earth. The land area of the lower 48 United States intercepts 50
trillion GJ per year, equivalent to 500 times of the nation’s annual energy
use. This energy is spread over 8 million square kilometers of land area,
so that the energy absorbed per unit area is 6.1 GJ per square meter per
year. This results in potential biomass production of 6,100 GJ per square
kilometer per year. Compared to the 0.1% efficiency of vegetation, roof
installable amorphous silicon solar panels capture 8%-14% of the solar
energy, while more expensive crystalline panels capture 14%-20%, and large
scale desert mirror-concentrator heat engine based setups may capture up to
For a stand-alone system, some means must be employed to store the collected energy for use during hours of darkness or cloud cover.
The following list includes both mature and immature
Using traditional batteries
Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen
Compressed air in cylinders and in caverns
Flywheel energy storage
Hydrogen produced by electrolysis
Superconducting magnetic energy storages
Storage always has an extra stage of energy conversion, with consequent energy losses, increasing the total capital costs. One way around this is to export excess power to the power grid, drawing it back when needed. This appears to use the power grid as a battery but in fact is relying on conventional energy production through the grid during the night. However, since the grid always has a positive outflow, the result is exactly the same.
Electric power costs are highly dependent on the consumption per time of day, since plants must be built for peak power (not average power). Expensive gas-fired "peaking generators" must be used when base capacity is insufficient. Fortunately for solar, solar capacity parallels energy demand -since much of the electricity is for removing heat produced by too much solar energy (ie, air conditioners). This is less true in the winter. Wind power complements solar power since it can produce energy when there is no sunlight.
Deployment of solar power
Deployment of solar power depends largely upon local conditions and requirements. All industrialised nations share a need for electricity and it is believed that solar power will increasingly be used as an option for electricity supply.
Solar Power By Country
Solar powered car
Development of a practical solar powered car has been an
engineering goal for 20 years. The center of this development is the World
Solar Challenge, a biannual solar powered car race over 3021 km (1877mi)
through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. The race's stated
objective is to promote research into solar-powered cars. Teams from
universities and enterprises participate. In 1987 when it was founded, the
winner's average speed was 67 km/h (42 mph). By the 2005 race this had
increased to an average speed of greater than 100 km/h (62 mph), even though
the cars were faced with the 110 km/h (68 mph) South Australia speed limit.
Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)
Solar air conditioning
Solar power satellite
Solar power tower
Solar updraft tower
Timeline of solar energy
How Solar Cells Work - Inside this Article Introduction to How Solar Cells Work, Photovoltaic Cells: Converting Photons to Electrons, How Silicon Makes a Solar Cell, Anatomy of a Solar Cell, Energy Loss in a Solar Cell, Solar-powering a House, See more »Solving Solar-power Issues, Solar-power Costs,
Lots More Information,
See all Energy Production articles
system - A solar-energy-process-converter system whereby the energy from
the sun is accumulated and projected by a parabolic reflector so as to
impinge upon a cluster of thermocouples to create electrical energy for
activating an electrolysis unit through which hydrogen and oxygen are
generated and stored. The system can also include a steam-turbine
electrical-generator plant that is adapted to be operated by the burning of
the hydrogen and oxygen, and the gases can further be used to establish heat
to drive a thermocouple electrical-generator plant, wherein the stored
hydrogen is further employed as a fuel for vehicle and other engines.
Hydrogen Process Produces Energy from Water - Special titanium oxide
ceramics harvest sunlight and split water to produce hydrogen fuel.
Researchers at University of New South Wales anticipate an energy-harvesting
device with no moving parts within 7 years.
Find worldwide solar
manufacturers - Solar energy expo: solar cells, modules, process
equipment manufacturers, assemblers, installers, dealers, distributors..
Solar energy - From
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Solar energy is energy from the Sun in
the form of radiated heat and light. It drives the climate and weather and
supports life on Earth. Solar energy technologies make controlled use of this
Solar Energy Components -
Solar panels, Solar collectors, charge controllers, controls, trackers, solar
cells, solar roofing, skylights, heat storage, battery banks, home power,
alternative energy, solar books and information. We are experts in solar
energy and can help you to select the proper solar energy components for your
a Little About the Components of Solar Energy Systems - Read about solar
power, an alternative energy source, submitted by Pathetic Man.
- Solar Energy Equipment & Systems - Products/Services - Solar Energy
Equipment & Systems. Redren Energy Pvt. Ltd. Redren Energy Pvt. Ltd is a
renewable energy company based in Rajkot...
Solar Energy, Solar
Power - There are two basic problems that have so far limited the use of
solar power on a large scale: energy intensity, and cost of the technology.
Solar Energy Works - Inside this Article 1. The Solar Resource, 2.
Passive Solar Design for Buildings, 3. Solar Heat Collectors, 4. Solar
Thermal Concentrating Systems, 5. Photovoltaics, 6. The Future of Solar
Solar Energy Costs/Prices
- The oil industry uses price per barrel as its unit of price measurement.
The solar energy industry typically uses price per Watt Peak (Wp) as its
primary unit of measurement. The prices for high power band (>70 Watts)
solar modules has dropped from around $27/Wp in 1982 to around $4/Wp today.
Prices higher and lower than this are usually dependent upon the size of the
does Solar Energy cost? - Would you like to own your electricity? Want to
stop worrying about rate inflation from your utility company, charging you
whatever they like? Did you know that rates have been rising by about 6% each
year in California for example? They will only keep going up and up unless
you do something about it!
Solar Energy Facts
- Solar Energy Facts Questions & Answer.
Moser Baer hopeful
of cutting solar energy cost - In contrast, the average cost of
generation at coal-fired thermal stations is around Rs 3 a unit. Gas-based
generation costs higher at around Rs 4-5 a unit, while liquid fuel-based
generation costs over Rs 7 a unit. However, industrial power purchasers are
willing to shell out higher tariffs upwards of Rs 7 a unit to meet the
peaking shortages at these high tariffs.
Case Studies: PV in Action - These case studies show how photovoltaic
(PV) energy systems can be used today in a variety of ways to provide clean,
reliable electricity. With continued research and development, the cost of
PV-generated electricity should be even more competitive with conventional
electric power in the next 5-10 years.
Solar Energy - There are many ways that solar energy can be used
effectively. Applications of solar energy use can be grouped into there are
three primary categories: heating/cooling, electricity production, and
chemical processes. The most widely used applications are for water and
space heating. Ventilation solar air heating is also growing in popularity.
Uses of Solar
Energy - Solar Energy is used to purify water, cook food, and heat air
Practical Uses of Solar Energy
- The most practical and popular use of solar energy for the homeowner is
solar pool heating. A solar pool heater extends the swimming season from May
through October to February through November (in Central Florida, water
temperature at least 75 degrees).
Solar Energy Technologies Program: Deployment - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program does not commercialize technologies or sell them in the marketplace—that is the private sector's responsibility. However, we do actively encourage the deployment of solar energy technologies.
solar gets smaller, its future gets brighter - Solar energy ranges
between $4 and $5 per watt. The report suggests market expansion will require
$2 to $2.50. If the price breakthrough occurs, says Wooley, the report's
assumed price structure represents a $6.6 billion annual market opportunity.
Energy Profile: Straight from the Source - The UN's annual "Global
Trends in Sustainable Development" report said that the solar sector
attracted 16 percent of the 70 billion U.S. dollars invested in renewable
technology in 2006 - behind wind (38 percent) and biofuels (26 percent).
According to the World Energy Council, solar water heating market is growing
at a rate of around 20 percent a year, and solar PV at 35 percent.
Solar Energy Services Borrego Solar - For larger systems or systems with
difficult access, Borrego Solar offers optional maintenance contracts.
Borrego Solar will schedule annual or semi–annual maintenance visits. During
these visits Borrego Solar will provide the following services.
And Maintenance Of Solar Power Systems - Operations and Maintenance of
Your Solar Power Systems - What to look for and how to manage the solar
energy output produced by your home or commercial solar power system. Solar
Powered Communities achieve energy independence through producing local,
carbon free, renewable electricity from the sun. Learn more about the solar
electricity providers near you. If you live in California, New Jersey, New
York, and Connecticut there's never been a better time to purchase a solar
energy system for generating solar power.
Energy Advantages Disadvantages - Many of us know that solar energy is a
good thing, but few really understand why. Therefore, I compiled a
comprehensive list of solar energy advantages and disadvantages that will
enable you to make an educated decision whether on not Solar Power is right
Solar Power is energy
from the Sun - Doesn't work at night. Very expensive to build solar power
stations. Solar cells cost a great deal compared to the amount of electricity
they'll produce in their lifetime. Can be unreliable unless you're in a very
sunny climate. In the United Kingdom, solar power isn't much use except for
low-power applications, as you need a very large area of solar panels to get
a decent amount of power. However, for these applications it's definitely
of Solar Energy - There are many more advantages than disadvantages of
solar energy, yet this article will cover the disadvantages of using solar
energy to generate electricity.
Energy Advantages Disadvantages - Solar energy is an excellent
alternative energy source because there is no pollution generated while it is
being utilized so therefore each time we use solar energy we reduce
pollution. There is no cost involved with using solar power other that the
cost of manufacturing the components, purchasing and installation. After your
initial investment there is no further cost associated with its use.
Energy Advantages Disadvantages - Solar energy Advantages far outweigh
Disadvantages. Discover how to save money and the planet, producing your own
reliable source of power. List of solar energy advantages disadvantages.
and heat tips - 'Solar And Heat Tips' contains loads of articles, ideas
and information on solar energy, solar power, solar panels, wind power,
alternative fuels and renewable energy, passive energy and related subjects
from all over the world that will help you to save energy, save money and
save the environment.
Energy saving tips - Using electricity wisely means using it efficiently but also using it at times of the day when demand is typically lower. On weekdays, peak demand occurs in the late afternoon or early evening as people return home from work. Delaying energy use until later in the evening or the weekend will help reduce these peaks. As well, consumers can also benefit from keeping energy use to a minimum during extreme hot and cold spells.
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About Oilgae - Oilgae - Oil & Biodiesel from Algae
has a focus on biodiesel production from algae while also discussing
alternative energy in general. Algae present an exciting possibility as a feedstock
for biodiesel, and when you realise that oil was originally formed from
algae - among others - you think "Hey! Why not oil again from
To facilitate exploration of oil production from algae as well as exploration of other alternative energy avenues, Oilgae provides web links, directory, and related resources for algae-based biofuels / biodiesel along with inputs on new inventions, discoveries & breakthroughs in other alternative energy domains such as solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, Geothermal hydrogen & fuel cells, gravitational, geothemal, human-powered, ocean & Wave / Tidal energy.