Content derived from Wikipedia article on Biomass
Biomass, in the energy production industry, refers to
living and recently living biological material which can be used as fuel or
for industrial production. Most commonly biomass refers to plant matter grown
for use as Biofuel but also includes plant or animal matter used for
production of fibres, chemicals or heat. Biomass may also include
biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. It excludes organic material
which has been transformed by geological processes into substances such as
coal or petroleum. It is usually measured by dry weight.
The term "biomass" is especially useful for
plants, where some internal structures may not always be considered living
tissue, such as the wood (secondary xylem) of a tree.
Biomass is grown from several plants, including Switchgrass
hemp, corn, willow and sugarcane. The particular plant used is usually not
very important to the end products, but it does affect the processing of the
raw material. Production of biomass is a growing industry as interest in
sustainable fuel sources is growing.
Though biomass is a renewable fuel, it can still contribute to global warming. This happens when the natural carbon equilibrium is disturbed; for example by deforestation or urbanisation of green sites.
Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon from the
atmosphere is converted into biological matter by photosynthesis. On decay or
combustion the carbon goes back into the atmosphere. This happens over a
relatively short timescale and plant matter used as a fuel can be constantly
replaced by planting for new growth. Therefore a reasonably stable level of
atmospheric carbon results from its use as a fuel.
Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient
biomass, they are not considered biomass by the generally accepted definition
because they contain carbon that has been 'out' of the carbon cycle for a
very long time. Their combustion therefore disturbs the carbon dioxide content
in the atmosphere.
Other uses of biomass, besides fuel:
Biodegradable plastics and paper (using Cellulose fibres)
1 Biomass production
2 See also
Biomass production for human use and consumption.
Biome Ecosystem Type Area Mean Net Primary Production World Primary Production Mean biomass World biomass Minimum replacement rate
(million km²) (gram dryC/sq metre/year) (billion tonnes/year)
(kg dryC/sq metre) (billion tonnes) (years)
Tropical rain forest 17.0 2,200 37.40 45.00 765.00 20.45
Tropical monsoon forest 7.5 1,600 12.00 35.00 262.50 21.88
Temperate evergreen forest 5.0 1,320 6.60 35.00 175.00 26.52
Temperate deciduous forest 7.0 1,200 8.40 30.00 210.00 25.00
Boreal forest 12.0 800 9.60 20.00 240.00 25.00
Mediterranean open forest 2.8 750 2.10 18.00 50.40 24.00
Woodland and shrubland 5.7 700 3.99 6.00 34.20 8.57
Savanna 15.0 900 13.50 4.00 60.00 4.44
Temperate grassland 9.0 600 5.40 1.60 14.40 2.67
Tundra and alpine 8.0 140 1.12 0.60 4.80 4.29
Desert and semidesert scrub 18.0 90 1.62 0.70 12.60 7.78
Extreme desert, rock, sand or ice sheets 24.0 3 0.07 0.02 0.48 6.67
Cultivated land 14.0 650 9.10 1.00 14.00 1.54
Swamp and marsh 2.0 2,000 4.00 15.00 30.00 7.50
Lakes and streams 2.0 250 0.50 0.02 0.04 0.08
Total continental 149.00 774.51 115.40 12.57 1,873.42 16.23
Open Ocean 332.00 125.00 41.50 0.003 1.00 0.02
Upwelling zones 0.40 500.00 0.20 0.020 0.01 0.04
Continental shelf 26.60 360.00 9.58 0.010 0.27 0.03
Algal beds and reefs 0.60 2,500.00 1.50 2.000 1.20 0.80
Estuaries & mangroves 1.40 1,500.00 2.10 1.000 1.40 0.67
Total marine 361.00 152.01 54.88 0.01 3.87 0.07
Grand total 510.00 333.87 170.28 3.68 1,877.29 11.02
Source: Whittaker, R. H.; Likens, G. E. (1975). “The Biosphere and Man”, Leith, H. & Whittaker, R. H.: Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. Springer-Verlag, 305-328. ISBN 0-3870-7083-4. ; Ecological Studies Vol 14 (Berlin) ISSN 0070-8356.
Related topics @ Wikipedia
Biomass to liquid
Novel Process of Biomass Gasification for Hydrogen-Rich Gas with Solid Heat
Carrier: Preliminary Experimental Results: A new process of biomass gasification
with a catalytic solid heat carrier is proposed that is called the ECCMB
(external circulating concurrent moving bed) gasification system
Stress-Related Genes during the Process of Biomass Propagation of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae Strains Used for Wine Making: Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
biomass is an economically important process. Industrial strains of S. cerevisiae
are used by many food companies as starters for fermentative processes in the
making of bread, wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages.
Production: Biomass is a very versatile material and can be used to
produce heat (for space and water heating), electricity and a combination of
heat and power (electricity). The UK has some of the largest examples of the
use of Biomass to generate electricity in Europe. Plants produce biomass by a
process called photo-. synthesis in which the energy from the sun con-. verts
carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates.
The European Biomass
Association: The European Biomass Association is a non profit Brussels
based international organisation whose mission is to represent bioenergy at
production: This Defra website provides details of actions and strategies
on biomass and non-food crops as part of UK actions for renewable energy
sources. Reports and consultations on biomass, anaerobic digestion, renewables
and energy crop information is available here.
Association: Biomass The Canadian and international associations listed
below promote information sharing, the use and adoption of clean energy
Companies On-line: Biomass Processing Companies.
development Companies: Biomass Development Company - Reducing the Use of
Coal (Replacing Coal with Environmentally-Friendly Biomass).
Gasification: Biomass Gasification Technologies is a privately-held
company started by several members of the board of directors at the Renewable
company develops biomass dryer technology: Swiss Group of Companies in Brazil
recently announced the development of biomass drying technology that uses
electromagnetic radiation. Edda Silvestro, Italian entrepreneur and Swiss
Group president, created the concept for the new device, and over the past
two years, a team of Brazilian engineers and technicians have worked to
construct the dryer, which Silvestro called a “revolutionary invention.”
Production Equipment: Deli Solar is also involved in the manufacture of
machinery and equipment that produces easily combustible and convenient
biomass products for home, commercial and municipal uses. The company
maintains a modern research facility that develops and tests methodologies
for the compression and formation of biomass products to develop the most
effective forms of commercial products.
Equipment: SEC “Biomass” is an official representative of Austrian
POLYTECHNIK Company in Ukraine. POLYTECHNIK is a manufacturer of
highly-efficient energy equipment for utilization of both waste wood and
agricultural wastes such as chips, bark, sawdust, briquettes, wood shavings,
sunflower husk, rice husk, etc).
New Biomass Extraction Equipment Increases Yields for Contract R&D, Toll Processing: A new biomass extraction processing line being assembled at POS Pilot Plant will maximize the amount of oil extracted from biomass, yield profitable by-products, and recycle the solvent used during processing.
plant for biomass gasification and power generation: The main equipment
of a biomass gasification-power generation system includes a gasifier, a
purifying tube, water scrubbers, a blower, generators, a waste-water
treatment pool, a biomass conveyer and feeder, etc.
Biomass Energy Works: There are a wide variety of biomass energy
resources, including tree and grass crops and forestry, agricultural, and
urban wastes. It is the oldest source of renewable energy known to humans,
used since our ancestors learned the secret of fire.
biomass fuels - boiler size and costs : Domestic and light industrial
biomass boiler systems tend to be physically larger and more expensive than
their fossil fuel equivalents.
Biomass Wood / Small Roundwood Biomass prices in the UK: Demand always drives supply and prices (for biomass) are almost always determined at the margin. While there is a welcome and gradual hardening of biomass prices, it is not yet aligned to other commodity prices, mainly because of the abundance of potential UK supply and the immature state of the market.
and Social Benefits/Costs of Biomass Plantations: Tree biomass
plantations potentially offer many direct and indirect environmental
benefits, but they may have negative environmental impacts as well. As
recently discussed by Graham, ascertaining the environmental impacts are
complex because the impacts of using biomass for energy must be considered in
the context of alternative energy options while the impacts of producing
energy crops must be considered in the context of alternative land uses.70
Biomass Energy: Cost and Scale Issues: Biomass in the Broadest Sense
Biomass Energy – Potential & Prospects: The investment required for a typical 1 MW
biomass based power plant varies from Rs. 3.5 to 4.0 Crores
Industrial Uses of Biomass Energy: Industrial Uses of Biomass Energy demonstrates that energy-rich vegetation, biomass, is a key renewable energy resource for the future.
Using Biomass Fuels: A wide choice of sophisticated biomass combustion equipment that offers a range of features, efficiency and convenience equal to the best fossil fuel fired systems, is currently available on the market. Timers, auto-ignition, automatic fuel feed, de-ashing and sophisticated building management systems all contribute to meaning that using biomass as a primary heating fuel can be as straightforward as using fossil fuels.
Issues for installing biomass systems: Before installing a biomass energy system there are a number of considerations that should always be made including system suitability, fuel supply and storage and delivery of that fuel.
Biomass Installation and Maintenance: Biomass installation and. Maintenance
Guide: How Biomass Energy Works
Directions To Estimate Biomass Change: Biomass Change With Field Studies
of Biomass: Burning of biomass produces greenhouse gases. Exhaust gas
cleaning technology must be applied to biomass energy plants to make them
Energy Disadvantages: Biomass Energy disadvantages. There really are not
that many. But we do need to look at the whole picture when trying to see if
biomass is a good alternative fuel to fossil fuel such as coal or oil.
Definition of Biomass - Energy Tips - Energy Saving Wales: Energy Saving Tips: read more about Definition of Biomass.
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