Comprehensive Oilgae Report

A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. More ››

Algae-based Wastewater Treatment

Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More ››

Comprehensive Guide for Algae-based Carbon Capture

A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs and Businesses Who Wish to get a Basic Understanding of the Business Opportunities and Industry Dynamics of the Algae-based CO2. More ››

Oilgae Digest

This is for entrepreneurs and businesses who wish to get a basic understanding of the algae fuel business and industry dynamics. More ››

Oilgae Report Academic Edition

Oilgae Report Academic Edition - provides research insights on new methodologies, perspectives and experiments in algae biofuels; this report is customized for academic and industry researchers, and students. More ››

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report

There is no other comprehensive report available for castor oil anywhere in the world. This is the first of its kind, and currently, the only one. More ››

Algae-Useful Substances





Algae for Pollution Control

Other Novel Applications

Butanol Fuel – Biofuels, Bio-energy - Reference & Resource

Nature gave us oil from algae; perhaps we should try Nature’s way again

Butanol fuel

Content derived from Wikipedia article on Butanol Fuel

Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. It is in several ways more similar to gasoline than Ethanol is. Butanol has been demonstrated to work in some vehicles designed for use with gasoline without any modification.[1] It can be produced from biomass as well as fossil fuels. Some call this Biofuel Biobutanol to reflect its origin, although it has the same chemical properties as butanol produced from petroleum.

Don't Miss It! Get Latest from Energy Delivered in Your Mailbox. Free!

Production of butanol from biomass

Butanol can be produced by Fermentation of biomass. The process uses the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism. It was Chaim Weizmann who first used this bacteria for the production of acetone from starch (with the main use of acetone being the making of Cordite) in 1916. The butanol was a by-product of this fermentation (twice as much butanol was produced). The process also creates a recoverable amount of H2 and a number of other by-products: acetic, lactic and propionic acids, acetone, isopropanol and ethanol.

The difference from ethanol production is primarily in the fermentation of the feedstock — producing butanol rather than ethanol like primary fermentation product and minor changes in distillation. The feedstocks are the same as for ethanol — energy crops such as sugar beets, sugar cane, corn grain, wheat and cassava as well as agricultural byproducts such as straw and corn stalks. According to DuPont, existing bioethanol plants can cost-effectively be retrofitted to biobutanol production.


Butanol better tolerates water contamination and is less corrosive than ethanol and more suitable for distribution through existing pipelines for gasoline. In blends with diesel or gasoline, butanol is less likely to separate from this fuel than ethanol if the fuel is contaminated with water. There is also a vapor pressure co-blend synergy with butanol and gasoline containing ethanol, which facilitates ethanol blending. This facilitates storage and distribution of blended fuels.

Properties of common fuels

Fuel Energy density - Air-fuel ratio – Specific energy - Heat of vaporization - RON - MON

Gasoline - 32 MJ/l - 14.6 - 2.9 MJ/kg air - 0.36 MJ/kg - 91–99 - 81–89

Butanol - 29.2 MJ/l - 11.2 - 3.2 MJ/kg air - 0.43 MJ/kg - 96 - 78

Ethanol - 19.6 MJ/l - 9.0 - 3.0 MJ/kg air - 0.92 MJ/kg - 130 - 96

Methanol - 16 MJ/l - 6.5 - 3.1 MJ/kg air - 1.2 MJ/kg - 136 - 104

Energy content and effects on fuel economy

Butanol is reported to yield 36 MJ/kg (15,500 BTU/lb) when burned. This can be expressed volumetrically as 29.3 MJ/l (104,800 BTU/US gal).

 Switching a gasoline engine over to butanol would in theory result in a fuel consumption penalty of about 10% but butanol's effect on mileage is yet to be determined by a scientific study. While the energy density for any mixture of gasoline and butanol can be calculated, tests with other alcohol fuels have demonstrated that the effect on fuel economy is not proportional to the change in energy density.

Octane rating

The octane rating of n-butanol is very similar to that of gasoline but lower than that of ethanol and methanol. n-Butanol has a RON (Research Octane number) of 96 and a MON (Motor octane number) of 78 while t-butanol has octane ratings of 105 RON and 89 MON. t-Butanol is used as an additive in gasoline but can't be used as a fuel in its pure form since the melting point is 25.5 °C - in other words it gels when cool.

A fuel with a higher octane rating is less prone to knocking (extremely rapid and spontaneous combustion by compression) and the control system of any modern car engine can take advantage of this by adjusting the ignition timing. This will improve energy efficiency, leading to a better fuel economy than the comparisons of energy content different fuels indicate. By increasing the compression ratio, further gains in fuel economy, power and torque can be achieved. Conversely, a fuel with lower octane rating is more prone to knocking and will lower efficiency. Knocking can also cause engine damage.

Air-fuel ratio

Alcohol fuels, including butanol and ethanol, are partially oxidized and therefore need to run at richer mixtures than gasoline. Standard gasoline engines in cars can adjust the air-fuel ratio to accommodate variations in the fuel, but only within certain limits depending on model. If the limit is exceeded by running the engine on pure butanol or a gasoline blend with a high percentage of butanol, the engine will run lean, something which can damage it. Compared to ethanol, butanol can be mixed in higher ratios with gasoline for use in existing cars without the need for retrofit as the air-fuel ratio and energy content is closer to that of gasoline.

Specific energy

Alcohol fuels have less energy per unit weight and unit volume than gasoline but at the same time require richer mixtures. To make it possible to compare the net energy released per cycle a measure called the fuels specific energy is sometimes used. It is defined as the energy released per air fuel ratio. The net energy released per cycle is higher for butanol than ethanol or methanol and about 10% higher than for gasoline.


Substance Kinematic


at 20°C

Butanol 3.64 cSt

Ethanol 1.52 cSt

Methanol 0.64 cSt

Gasoline 0.4–0.8 cSt

Diesel >3 cSt

Water 1.0 cSt

The viscosity of alcohols increase with longer carbon chains. For this reason, butanol is used as an alternative to shorter alcohols when a more viscous solvent is desired. The kinematic viscosity of butanol is several times higher than that of gasoline and about as viscous as high quality diesel fuel.

Heat of vaporization

The fuel in an engine has to be vaporized before it will burn. Insufficient vaporization is a known problem with alcohol fuels during cold starts in cold weather. As the latent heat of vaporization of butanol is less than half of that of ethanol, an engine running on butanol should be easier to start in cold weather than one running on ethanol or methanol.

Potential problems with the use of Butanol Fuel

The potential problems with the use of butanol are similar to those of ethanol:

To match the combustion characteristics of gasoline, the utilization of butanol fuel as a substitute for gasoline requires fuel-flow increases.

Alcohol-based fuels are not compatible with some fuel system components.

Alcohol fuels may cause erroneous gas gauge readings in vehicles with capacitance fuel level gauging.

The viscosity of butanol is much higher than for gasoline or ethanol, which could have negative effects on the fuel system.

Possible butanol fuel mixtures

Standards for the blending of ethanol and methanol in gasoline exist in many countries, including the EU, the US and Brazil. Approximate equivalent butanol blends can be calculated from the relations between the stochiometric fuel-air ratio of butanol, ethanol and gasoline. Common ethanol fuel mixtures for fuel sold as gasoline currently range from 5% to 20%. The share of butanol can be 60% greater than the equivalent ethanol share, which gives a range from 8% to 32%. "Equivalent" in this case refers only to the vehicles ability to adjust to the fuel. Other properties such as energy density, viscosity and heat of vaporisation will vary and may further limit the percentage of butanol that can be blended with gasoline.

Current butanol vehicles

Currently no production vehicle is known to be approved by the manufacturer for use with 100% butanol. The use of butanol in a vehicle which is not approved for this is not recommended as it may cause damage to the vehicle.

Related topics @ Wikipedia

Agricultural byproduct

Air-fuel ratio

Associated British Foods plc and its subsidiary British Sugar plc.





Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels



Emission standards

Energy crop

Ethanol fuel

Fermentation facility

List of vegetable oils section on oils used as biofuel




^ Dupont Fact Sheet on Biobutanol

^ Dupont Fact Sheet Biobutanol


^ USAtoday


^ of oxygenates

^ [1]


^ USA today

^ Engineering Toolbox


Continuous two-stage ABE-fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii NRLL B592 operating with a growth rate in the first stage vessel close to its maximal value, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000 Jan;2(1):101-5.

As Gas Prices Climb, Butanol Research Reaches Exciting Stage

End of Wikipedia Content. Retrieved from

  • We’d like to regularly add more useful content and web resources to Should you know of any good web resource for Biodiesel production from algae, do let us know by sending a note to [narsi]@[esource].[in] (remove [ ] for the email address). Many thanks for your patience.
  • All content at Oilgae are available for reproduction and usage under the GNU Free Documentation License. Please see explanation at the end of this page for more details.

Add Links/Submit Links: Do you have a web resource that belongs to here? If you have a web site that you wish to include in this page, do let us know the details by sending a note about your URL to [narsi]@[esource].[in] to add URL (pl remove the [ ] to get my email address!). We’ll quickly review the web site, and if found relevant, add it to the database. Thanks! content is available under GNU Free Documentation License: All content at is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation (GFDL). Put simply, under this license, anyone is free to copy & use any amount of content @, make changes to it and use it in any way they wish, as long as they also allow the same rights to anyone else for this content and give credits to Oilgae by giving a link to the specific page/s from where the content was taken (a mention of and a brief description about the site is enough for offline usage). Put not so simply, see the GNU Free Documentation License .

This page uses the Wikipedia article Butanol Fuel

About Oilgae - Oilgae - Oil & Biodiesel from Algae has a focus on biodiesel production from algae while also discussing alternative energy in general. Algae present an exciting possibility as a feedstock for biodiesel, and when you realise that oil was originally formed from algae - among others - you think "Hey! Why not oil again from algae!"

To facilitate exploration of oil production from algae as well as exploration of other alternative energy avenues, Oilgae provides web links, directory, and related resources for algae-based biofuels / biodiesel along with inputs on new inventions, discoveries & breakthroughs in other alternative energy domains such as Solar Wind nuclear, hydro, Geothermal hydrogen & fuel cells, gravitational, geothemal, human-powered, ocean & Wave / Tidal energy.