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Blogs under tag Algae

Algae Fuels Community @ CleanTick ? One-stop Destination for All about Algae Fuels! Posted by Sumukhi on Wed July 20 2011 11:16:42 AM 11

CleanTick is an online cleantech community from the promoters of Oilgae.


Cleantick has  recently launched  an online algae fuels community which aims to bring about all the algae fuel professionals, researchers and enthusiasts at one place for focussed discussions, and interactions on  specific topics pertaining to algae fuels.


Algae Fuels Community @ CleanTick provides you the opportunity to:



  • Create your own pages - What is your topic of interest in algae fuels? Start a page on it in just a click and share your knowledge with others.

  • Create your own projects - Are you involved in any algae fuel projects? Showcase it to the world, and get appreciation and assistance.

  • Q&A - Have a question on algae fuels? Use this section to get answers from the worldwide algae fuels community

  • Members - Do you want to connect with algae enthusiasts throughout the world? Connect to members and have rich interactions with diverse experts in the algae fuel industry.

  • Algae Fuels News Feeds - All updates on the biofuels industry at one place.

  • Algae Fuel Tweets - All tweets on the algae fuels industry at one place.

  • Algae Fuel Companies - Showcase your algae company through CleanTick


What's more!


CleanTick's Algae Fuels Community is growing super fast!. Already has 400 members from the world over including researchers and students, financial investors, entrepreneurs, algae fuel industry professionals, biofuel enthusiasts, and more.


Join the CleanTick Algae Fuels Community Now - http://www.cleantick.com/topic/algae-fuels

Amazing Algae-Asia Conference - Who Says What? Posted by Sumukhi on Mon November 01 2010 12:12:09 PM 3

A remarkable event comprising of many algae enthusiasts all around the world was conducted by the Centre for Management Technology (CMT) in Singapore on the 19th and the 20th of October.


The event comprised of many intellectual delegates keen on updating their knowledge on the latest developments in the algae-energy industry. Several discerning algologists working on algae-based high value end products fervent on understanding the technologies, status and the key bottlenecks faced by the algae energy industry were also present for this mega event.


 An Eye Opener Indeed! - The conference opened up the horizon of the less initiated to what is possible, what is already happening and what scope exists. An eye opener to many!. Eminent and tech-savvy speakers from various research institutes, companies and consultancies world-over were in attendance. Some of the speakers provided useful insights on how to succeed in the algae-energy business and a few others discussed about the technological developments in the algae-industry and their efforts in this domain.


Of Course, there were the regular Nay sayers and Yeah Sayers! The former were skeptical about the commercialization of algae fuels in the near-future and were quite assertive that eradicating the challenges faced by algae fuels is a long-long-long-term activity. The latter, however, gave an overall positive outlook of the whole algae-fuel scenario by describing their efforts and milestones and future efforts .Some of them explained that by  having a BIG focus on high-value end products while producing biofuels is the route to go?!



 Carbon-dioxide Sequestration-  "ABANDON ALL HOPE" or........ ?!


Among the speakers from the industrial side were - Dr. John Benemann - the author of the book on algal biofuels and by-products, one of the chief scientist of the Aquatic Species Program (ASP) provided some useful insights on the prospects of large-scale algae biofuels production with Municipal and Agricultural waste water.


Dr.Benemann, however, was not very assertive about the carbon-dioxide abatement using algae in the U.S. He exclaimed that the chances of CO2 capture in the United States is as less as 0.1%, hence hopes to capture carbon-dioxide employing algae must be abandoned. However, Australian ?based MBD energy were quite confident about their  collaboration with three Australian-based power plants to capture CO2 using algae. Mr. Tony Clair, Agribusiness Manager  from this company confidently presented their milestones and claimed that their algae- plants  near the power-plant emitters will operate effectively from 2011.


Yet another speaker who threw light on this hot topic was Mr. Steven Martin from Pond Biofuels, he unfortunately couldn't make it for the conference; hence spoke through Skype detailing their tie-up with Ontario-based St. Mary's Cement and their upcoming work for growing algae from stack gas emissions near many more cement plants.


We also had the well-known "Quantum fracturing" company - Orgin Oil highlighting how the large CO2 emitters should venture into this nascent algae industry and their work on their patent-pending unique harvester which separates the biomass leaving the oil on top.  


From Switzerland, we had Dr Jean-Paul , he shared some information about his research on the enhancement of biodiesel production from microalgae species by increasing the addition of carbon-dioxide through gasification with the aid of a catalyst.


Will Algae -Energy Projects Soon Secure Carbon-Financing!? - From the algae business perspective, we had a reputed speaker from KPMG consultants, Malaysia. Mr. Rahul Kar the Director of the carbon and sustainability advisory, KPMG highlighted the procedure to be followed so as to obtain the carbon financing for algae-based projects. He surprisingly remarked that- No algae energy project has ever been taken to the United Nations to secure carbon financing.


Open Ponds or PBR - Nah!!!! , Open Ponds PBR - YES?! -  There have been debates in this industry as to which cultivation method has to be employed - Open-ponds Vs Photobioreactors (PBR). Mr. Vittor Verdelho from Alga Fuel, Portugal highlighted the fact that a technique for the combined use of open-ponds photobioreactors for algae-cultivation will only be a feasible option. He exclaimed ? Open ?ponds or PBRS ? aint gonna work !


Non-Fuel Products First, Fuel Next?! -   The challenges ahead of algae-fuel commercialization were presented by the Managing Director of Aurora Algae formerly known as Aurora Biofuels. Mr. Matt Caspari .The thought-process of Matt was fantabulous. He highlighted the fact that it is a good idea for algae fuel companies to initially focus on high-end non-fuel products from algae, and gradually shift to fuel production as more breakthroughs occur in the algae-fuel industry.


Integrated Algae-Based Remediation and Biofuel Production - There were a few speakers who spoke about the prospects of algae-based bioremediation. Dr.Rupert Craggs from National Institute of Water and Atmospheric research (NIWA) highlighted the efforts pursued by NIWA for algae-based waste water treatment in high-rate algae ponds. He also highlighted the benefits of employing waste-flue gas as a carbon-source into the high-rate algae ponds (HRAP). Most importantly, he exclaimed that the use of colonial algae would be the best option as they can be easily harvested making the harvesting process less-energy intensive.


Will Macroalgae be the Feedstock for the "FUTURE FUEL" ?!


Prof. Dr. Choul-Gyun Lee from INHA university was of an opinion that exploiting the seaweeds in the ocean will be a more viable option to make biofuels sustainable. Apparently, he is working on three projects - biodiesel from microalgae, macroalgae to ethanol and screening strains to be used as biofuel feedstock with the fund of 49 billion Korean Won ( approximately 42 million USD) obtained from the Korean Government.


From a Korean-based company by name  Ecophycotech. Dr. Kyung Kim, the CEO of the company highlighted  the commercial production of microalgae and its alternative markets. Interestingly, the Korea Food & Drug Administration permits to industrialize only two kinds of microalgae (Chlorella and Spirulina), which delays to develop many kinds of microalgal products in Korea.


Myung-Ko Shin from Biolsystem, Korea shared his views on the development of technologies for producing bioethanol from macroalgae.  His key research area involves the production of bioethanol through saccharification and fermentation processes from red algae.


Is Genetic Engineering the Solution to Make Algae Fuel Commercial!? - Research in the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS)  is mainly on studying the lipid metabolism in certain algae strains. Dr. Neil Clarke  a senior scientist from GIS presented the  systems biology of lipid metabolism in various microalgae species. They are also working on a genetic-engineering project termed 1KP wherein , they plan to modify 1000 different species of plants, out of which sequencing various green algae  species for biochemical application is one among their target.


Yet another speaker from Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) also presented his work on the genetic modification of marine-water algae strains such as Nannochlropsis and high-throughput genomics based screening and development on oilgae feedstock.


Dr. Tom Beer, Leader, Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels from Common Wealth Scientific and Industrial Research  CSIRO, Australia provided some useful information on the scope and emerging opportunities for algae-biofuel production unique to countries such as Australia.


Marvelous Networking Opportunity! The networking opportunity the conference offered was simply superb! Good that we had a lot of business cards; we got a brilliant opportunity to connect with many erudite academia, discerning algalogists and algae-industry professionals. One of the most memorable moment my colleague Mathumitha Balu and I shared were that we got an opportunity to dine with Dr. Benemann during the lunch-break on the second-day of the conference.  We really wished we had more time to network with other speakers and delegates as well.


This conference, as promised, proved out to be a junction of top minds in the industry and as Oilgae and others left Singapore they were very happy with knowledge gained on the status and the future of this nascent industry.


To sum up, the experience of the 3rd Algae-World Asia was fantastic, as this summit proved to be a bridge connecting algae-enthusiasts from all over the globe with a sharp expertise and enormous experience to discuss almost all the technologies currently employed for algae exploitation. The thought process of the speakers were remarkable which made us sit-back for their presentations. CMT, an all-women maintained organization ( I say so coz I witnessed only lady volunteers working there from setting up the projectors to taking photographs!) Kudos to CMT for choosing such distinguished speakers and being the organizers for such a magnificent occasion.   


How I wish such conferences occur once in three months. I am sure it will be a tremendous opportunity to learn, share and network with numerous algae-energy enthusiasts from all over the world.

Conference on Algae Solutions and Investment Opportunities - Singapore, Oct 19-20 2010 Posted by Sumukhi on Thu September 23 2010 03:49:02 AM 6

The 3rd Algae World Asia conference conducted by the Centre for Management Technology (CMT) in October will run on the 19th and 20th at Goodwood Park Hotel, Singapore.

This conference is designed to act as a catalyst to facilitate constructive exchanges among the Academic, Commercial and Investment community involved in algae sector, with agenda that highlights upcoming opportunities in Asia and spotlights successful Algae businesses.
The conference is expected to attract over 100 participants from  all around the globe. CMT invites other visitors and sponsors to attend this event.

The main themes of the conference are as follows:
  • Sharing of Practical Experiences in Algae Production
  • Value Proposition in Algae-based Carbon Capture
  • Value Proposition in Waste Water Treatment
  • Algae Technology Development in Asia Pacific
  • Current & future Development of Algae-Based Bioenergy

To accomplish the above themes, the event has got eminent speakers such as Dr.John R. Benemann and speakers from MBD Energy Ltd, Aurora Algae Pty Ltd, OriginOil, St. Marys Cement Inc  and many more.

The participants of this conference also include many algae producers, equipment suppliers, algae research institutes, financiers and investors, power plant operators and more from across the globe.

 Many companies involved in making high-value algae end -products and other algae- products will also be participating and presenting their technology during this mega event.

Should your firm be interested in joining as a visitor or sponsor, please get in touch with:

Ms. Sharmila,
Centre for Management Technology
sharm@cmtstp.com.sg

Oilgae is a media partner for the event and will be assisting CMT in promoting this exciting event.

For all the algae enthusiasts www.cmtevents.com/main.aspx?ev=101038&pu=204187

How are algae able to grow in the dark? Posted by Sumukhi on Mon August 30 2010 02:40:57 PM 60

Dark fermentation is in the news after 

Solazyme , an US based algae company delivered 1500 gallons of jet fuel to the US navy early July.

Interestingly, this company 's approach ( Earlier post) is different from the rest, they grow genetically engineered algae  in the dark and follow what is called the heterotrophic fermentation -  providing sugars for the algae, the sugars act as the carbon-source, the algae eat that up and accumulate lipids in their cells.

I was hence wondering how these algae strains which are known to grow only in the presence of light, photosynthetic  are  able to grow even when there is absolutely no light available. Though I realized that genetic engineering plays a role here, wanted to know more details about the genes which enable a photosynthetic organism to grow in the absence of light.

How and when did they isolate the  first algae strain that can grow in dark?

In 2001, researchers at the Department of Plant Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Palo Alto, California, and Martek Biosciences Corporation in Columbia, Maryland were the first to introduce a fundamental metabolic change in a single-celled alga so that it no longer required light to grow.

What did they do next?

The scientists first inserted one gene that catalyses glucose transport into the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, (P. tricorntum is a oil-yielding algae which has about of 20% of oil in it)  The scientists then individually inserted several genes responsible for glucose transport from three different organisms into                  P. tricornutum.

The  genes  inserted were 1. hup1 gene - Chlorella kessleri  .2. Three other genes, hxt1, hxt2 and hxt4, come from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 3. The final gene, glut1 from an unknown algae strain . Out of these genes, the hup1 and the glut1 showed great promise of enabling the organism to thrive in the dark!

To cut the long story short, it essentially means that the algae gets the energy exclusively from the glucose and those those two genes help the algae to consume the glucose and enables the organism to thrive in the dark!

See more -  http://www.greencarcongress.com/2008/02/solazyme-ups-so.html

Algae.Tec signs Two MOU Posted by Sumukhi on Fri August 27 2010 04:53:55 AM 12

Algae.tec Limited, which has secured the exclusive global rights to a pioneering highly-efficient algae growth and harvesting system (the McConchie-Stroud System) that produces algal products (such as algal oil and biomass) that can be used to generate sustainable bio-fuels, today announced two MOU's for non-binding commitments to deploy the technology in China and Australia.

Algae.Tec is currently undertaking an Initial Public Offering by way of a prospectus dated 16 July 2010 with the intention to list on the ASX by the end of September 2010. The Company?s ASX code will be AEB.

What sets Algae Tec's technology apart is that it exploits a patented system of algae growth not within ponds but within converted shipping containers. Scalability thus becomes modular, and land requirement is reduced by the ability to stack those modules. The closed modules are not exposed to the same problems as open ponds. And, most importantly, the modules are readily transportable.

In the pond system, the CO2 must come to the pond. To improve yields and accelerate algal growth, captured CO2 can be introduced but (a) it must be transported to the site from an emitter and (b) a lot of the introduced CO2 will simply bubble out of the pond again. In Algae.Tec?s system, the ?pond? comes to the CO2.

Closed modules can be stacked adjacent to an emitter (eg a power station) and everybody wins. The emitter has a direct and measurable carbon offset and the introduced CO2 exponentially accelerates algae biomass production for conversion into commercial products which are themselves a source of renewable alternative energy (which in theory can also be used as an energy source by said emitter).

Partnership with Shoalhaven Starches Pty Ltd.
Algae.Tec has now signed a memorandum of understanding with Shoalhaven Starches Pty Ltd, a subsidiary of the Manildra Group. Manildra is primarily a producer of wheat flour and secondarily a producer of differentiated by-products such as gluten, glucose and starch. Nowra-based Shoalhaven Starches converts starch into ethanol, making the Manildra Group Australia?s largest ethanol producer.

Manildra's ethanol production plant operates using a CO2-emitting power plant. Therein lies a potential source of CO2 for exploitation by Algae.Tec technology, but CO2 is actually also emitted from the conversion of starch into ethanol. For Algae.Tec, its a double-whammy.

Algae.Tec has thus found the site for its demonstration plant. At the time its IPO prospectus was published, it had not. This means a supplementary prospectus has now been published and the close of application date for the IPO has been extended to September 17. Algae.Tec hopes to have the demonstration plant in operation by the June quarter, 2011.

The demonstration plant will consist of two or three container modules but if it proves successful the MOU extends to the construction of Algae.Tec's first commercial plant at the site consisting of some 200-300 containers. Requisite council and environmental applications for such a plant will be filed immediately rather than waiting until after the demonstration proves viable.

The Nowra-based plant would then be the world's first commercial algae operation. At this point, Algae.Tec is not yet planning to produce its own ethanol from the resultant biomass given there are a number of options to be explored, including directing the algae to the production of nutrient-rich stock feed for sale in the region.

Another MOU
Algae.Tec has also signed another new MOU which becomes part of the supplementary prospectus. The MOU involves Algae.Tec in a partnership with Bioenergy Investment Ltd ? an alternative energy investment vehicle incorporated in Hong Kong. Bioenergy Investment is itself a joint venture between Hong Kong company Pacific Minerals and Australian company RKD International.

The purpose of the joint venture is to first seek intellectual property protection for Algae.Tec?s technology in China.

Clearly Algae.Tecs two new MOUs, to add to existing the MOU with logistics and plant construction and management specialist Leighton Holdings, are of a material nature. Hence the supplementary prospectus and extended closing date for the $7.5m IPO.

Prospective investors must take note that while all of the above sounds very promising, algae technology is yet to be proven on a commercial scale anywhere in the world. While demonstration plants are intended to provide proof, there are no guarantees. This is a speculative investment. There will be no cashflow ahead of commercialisation. And the commerialisation phase will require the issuing of significantly more capital.

A New Type of Chlorophyll Discovered after 60 years of Research Posted by Sumukhi on Fri August 27 2010 04:04:10 AM 59

An interdisplinary team of scientists discover a new form of Chlorophyll which could lead to new developments of new methods to produce biofuels. The team had a group of scientists

-  Dr Martin Schliep and Dr Zhengli Cai (University of Sydney, Australia);

-  Associate Professor Robert Willows (Macquarie University, Australia);

-  Professor Brett Neilan (University of New South Wales, Australia)

-  Professor Hugo Scheer (University of Munich, Germany)

These scientists worked together and characterized the absorption properties and chemical structure of chlorophyll f, making it the fifth known type of chlorophyll molecule on Earth. Believe it or not, many scientists have been researching on this for over 60 years now.

Chlorophyll, as you might be knowing is an important green pigment found in algae which  helps the  algae to obtain energy from light.,  It  was earlier believed that these pigments absorbs light more strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum followed by the red spectrum and so on. However, this new discovery extends that range all the way to the red end of that spectrum.

This finding could lead to the development of new methods to produce biofuels more efficiently. The efficiency of the photosynthesis is entirely dependent on the type and intensity of sunlight the algae is exposed to and  this discovery could thus help us to probably use a suitable  algae strain or probably engineer a strain which can accumulate lipids in its cells and produce biofuels even when its exposed to multiple types of light.

If the algae is able to make effective utilization of a wider portion of the light spectrum, than it naturally produces a lot more energy, which in turn allows it to grow faster. This means that the point is located just beyond the red end of the visible light spectrum.

There  are four forms of Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll c1 Chlorophyll c2 Chlorophyll d.  This newly discovered chlorophyll is called Chlorophyll f which can utilize lower energy than any other knows chlorophyll.

This chlorophyll was first identified rather accidently discovered in what is called stromatolites. Stromatolites are basically layered structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by blue-green algae.

The samples used in this particular investigation were collected from the Hamelin pool, in the Shark Bay of western Australia. The research team  believes that microorganisms known as filamentous cyanobacteria are responsible for the production of chlorophyll f in stromatolites.

More information: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=new-form-chlorophyll

Algae Fuels- Emerging opportunity for India Posted by Sumukhi on Wed August 18 2010 10:06:48 AM 7

When algae are grown they should be provided the best possible conditions to achieve their growth potential. I was earlier a bit skeptical about growing algae in open-ponds. However, when I visualize a country such as India - a few states in India have ample of land, sunshine throughout the year and easy access to marine water, isn't growing algae in open-ponds using marine water a good option? I say it's a big YES!

Many scientists claim that filtered sea water is a good medium for algae to grow, though additional nutrient requirement to some extent might be required. Again, the nutrient cost is less, research studies reveal that it is as less as $1 for 80 Kg's of algae biomass.

Considering the harvesting of algae, cheap labor is a major advantage offered by India, so why not use semi-automated methods for harvesting algae which is less energy intensive and less costly.

Apparently, there are a few algae farms, specifically Spirulina farms which are managed by the local village women. There is a farm at Madurai - Follow the link - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U6cslNtc6P4
wherein there are 40 tanks maintained by 15 women, they take care of both the upstream and the downstream processes of spirulina cultivation and production of the end-product.

All this might not be exactly the same for biofuel strains of algae, however, in my opinion,this is how things should evolve for algae biofuel commercialization in India as well.

As said earlier, most of the states in India experiences sunlight throughout the year, so solar drying is an excellent option.Similarly, dewatering is also done manually. Here I foresee an issue for extraction, as for Spirulina, it is dried, powdered and sold at a high price. There are other challenges if biofuels are considered, extraction is difficult.

May be along with biofuel, some expensive by-product should be produced. Many companies are actually trying to that, a few Indian researchers are producing biobutanol and other products to cope up the cost.

The story behind 1500 gallons of Solazyme's jet fuel to the U.S. Navy Posted by Sumukhi on Wed August 11 2010 05:17:27 PM 56

Solazyme,a San Francisco-based algae company claimed that they provided about 1500 gallons of algae-based jet fuel , infact 100 percent algae-based fuel to the U.S. Navy. So, I was actually wondering what is so special about it that the U.S. Navy is after it.

SOLAZYME's UNIQUE APPROACH TOWARDS ALGAE-BASED JET FUEL

Harris Dillion, the founder of Solazyme Inc. claims that their technology is to feed the biomass
( industrial and agricultural) for the algae,the algae eats it up and accumulate oil in their cells. They take the algae out, dry it and squeeze 80% of oil. They then transport this in a tanker to their biorefinery where this oil is converted into jet-fuel and more.

Algae strain selection as you might be aware is a resource intensive exercise,Solazyme has dedicated many years of research to identify the best oil yielding strain which can produce oil. In fact they are using an engineered algal strain.

OPEN-PONDS WONT WORK!--- ECONOMICALLY NOT FEASIBLE:

The company apparently is seven years old and the process with the tank and growing the algae has been in development for about four years. Before that, they spent a few years growing the algae in ponds using sunlight, and realized that would never work.

The cost of making a gallon of oil by growing algae in the sun according to Dillon is about $1,000 a gallon. They then realized that the process of feeding biomass to yeast to make ethanol, which is about $2 a gallon. So they fed the sugars to algae, and use the same process to make oil.

SOLAZYME's JET-FUEL MEETS ALL THE REQUIREMENTS:

They have considered all the aspects of the normal jet-fuel and worked on producing the same from their algae jet fuel for the US navy. There are many properties such as flash points,or freezing points, because it's very cold in the sky. You have to be above a certain freezing point. The standards are pretty stringent and of course, it needs to have a certain density because there?s not a lot of room on a jet.

Also, the density of jet fuel is actually a little lower than diesel because if you drop the density you can keep it from solidifying at cold temperatures.

Interestingly, no changes need to be made in the aircraft to support this fuel. There is no requirement of new engines, new pipelines or new gas pumps.

Solazyme actually aims at making the fuel meet every single fuel standard the Navy has so it can be used as a 100 percent drop-in replacement and now that they have delivered 1500 gallons of jet-fuel to the US navy, they will now send it to laboratories to get the final approval before they test their planes. Additionally,

Solazyme is also planning to deliver about 20,000 gallons of diesel fuel which will be used for ships.
They claim that they will be able to make oil $60 to $80 a barrel within two years, and they say that they are not much higher than that now.

The Air Force is also certainly interested in these fuels as well. The Navy has a goal to operate at least 50 percent of its fleet on clean, renewable fuel by 2020. The Navy has led the way in putting a bold target out there and getting this program up and running.

Good luck to Solazyme!!!

KEY TAKEAWAYS:

According to Solazyme,

1. Their method of algae production doesn?t require light ( heterotropic)

2. They unlike others grow algae in steel tanks (fermenters) and not in open- ponds or Photobioreactors.

3. They wish to use existing infrastructure (large-scale fermentation tanks and bio refineries).

4. They have supplied 15,000 gallons to US Navy and their jet-fuel is 100% algae-based.

5. The U.S. Navy has sent it for testing it in laboratories and will use it only after they get it approved.

6. They plan to provide 20,000 gallons of diesel fuel for the Navy to run the ships.

7. Initially, they tried to grow algae in open-ponds but as they felt open ?ponds is economically not viable they have opted for dark-fermentation using cheap sugars.

8. Air-force is also interested in Solazyme's jet fuel

9. Solazyme has provided 15,000 gallons of jet-fuel to the U.S. Navy at their own cost.

$52 million for algae fuel development- Solazyme Posted by Sumukhi on Tue August 10 2010 06:58:56 AM 6

Solazyme, a company based out of California have been working on a unique method of making algae fuels by using cheap sugars to grow algae in the dark.

As you might be aware of the fact that Solazyme uses a very different approach to make biofuels, they use heterotrophic algae in the dark while the others grow photo-autotrophic algae in light.These algae however doesn?t require sunlight, they need sugar for their growth. Intrestingly, Growing these algae in dark is a simplified process. It grows faster in dark than with light.

Heterotrophic algae are fed with sugars(corn, sorghum or other sources), they consume the food and show significant growth. They can reproduce every 8 hours.

The company's researchers feed algae sugar, which the organisms then convert into various types of oil. The oil can be extracted and further processed to make a range of fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, as well as other products.

There are some people who contradict saying , this might actually not work the sugars may turn more expensive. However, there are some researchers who argue saying that , even if they use corn as a sugar source for algae,they are still left with the corn protein and corn oil which can be used. Similarly if starch is used, they can be further used for ethanol production.

Surprisingly ,sugar-fed algae grow more rapidly. Researchers claim that algae grown in the dark can reach densities that are 1,000 times higher than strains of photo-autotrophic algae that are grown in the light . One concentrated tank of heterotrophic algae is equivalent to growing 1000 tanks of photo-autotrophic algae.

This company announced that it has raised $52 million in a series D round, which brings investment bank Morgan Stanley into its list of investors. In addition to venture-capital companies, the venture arms of Chevron and Japanese food ingredient manufacturer San-Ei Gen also participated.

Last month, it delivered 1,500 gallons of jet fuel made from algae to the U.S. Navy for testing and certification. Solazyme is also making chemicals for food ingredients and health products where its oil can be used as a substitute. Even with the funding and contracts with the U.S. military, Solazyme still faces the challenge of commercializing its technology by bringing down the cost of its oils, particularly for fuels.

More from here - http://www.oilgae.com/blog/2009/02/solazyme-differs-from-its-competitors.html

Algae Cultivation Next to Cement Plants Posted by Sumukhi on Mon August 09 2010 06:53:29 AM 6

The cement industry contributes about 5% of total global carbon dioxide emissions. Due to the dominant use of carbon intensive fuels, e.g. coal, in clinker making, the cement industry is also a major emitter of CO2 emissions. Hence growing algae next to these cement plants can be a fantastic opportunity to convert these stack gases to algae oil.

From where does these carbon-dioxide comes from??

Carbon dioxide emissions in cement manufacturing comes
a. Directly from combustion of fossil fuels
b. Calcining the limestone in the raw mix.
c. An indirect and significantly smaller source of CO2 is from consumption of electricity assuming that the electricity is generated from fossil fuels.

Roughly half of the emitted CO2 originates from the fuel and half originates from the conversion of the raw material. These carbon-dioxide emissions is very harmful and can be reduced by removing them from the flue gases and this is where our algae can be used!!

There are few efforts underway to capture these emissions one of which is a Canadian company called Pond biofuels has utilized this opportunity to capture the GHG emissions from the cement plants. In early April,2010, they planned to capture the emissions of the St. Marys Cement plant in southwestern Ontario. The company claims that it plans to capture the carbon dioxide and other emissions from the cement plant and will use it to create a nutrient-rich algae slime which can be dried and used as a fuel.

The algae will be grown at a facility adjacent to the stacks, harvested, dried using industrial waste heat, from the cement plant and then used along with the fossil fuels that are currently used in its cement kilns. The company says they hope to demonstrate the scalability of the industrial pilot project and to show that it can be employed on virtually any industrial stack.

More details of some efforts taken by other companies and the concept of algae cultivation near cement plants can be better understood from Oilgae.com - http://www.oilgae.com/algae/cult/cos/cem/cem.html

A video on algae carbon-capture from coal- fired power plants can also be obtained from - http://www.oilgae.com/videos/watch/31/Algae-cultivation---Seambiotic/

http://www.oilgae.com/algae/cult/cos/cem/cem.html