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Algae Fuels Community @ CleanTick ? One-stop Destination for All about Algae Fuels!

CleanTick is an online cleantech community from the promoters of Oilgae.

Cleantick has  recently launched  an online algae fuels community which aims to bring about all the algae fuel professionals, researchers and enthusiasts at one place for focussed discussions, and interactions on  specific topics pertaining to algae fuels.

Algae Fuels Community @ CleanTick provides you the opportunity to:

  • Create your own pages - What is your topic of interest in algae fuels? Start a page on it in just a click and share your knowledge with others.

  • Create your own projects - Are you involved in any algae fuel projects? Showcase it to the world, and get appreciation and assistance.

  • Q&A - Have a question on algae fuels? Use this section to get answers from the worldwide algae fuels community

  • Members - Do you want to connect with algae enthusiasts throughout the world? Connect to members and have rich interactions with diverse experts in the algae fuel industry.

  • Algae Fuels News Feeds - All updates on the biofuels industry at one place.

  • Algae Fuel Tweets - All tweets on the algae fuels industry at one place.

  • Algae Fuel Companies - Showcase your algae company through CleanTick

What's more!

CleanTick's Algae Fuels Community is growing super fast!. Already has 400 members from the world over including researchers and students, financial investors, entrepreneurs, algae fuel industry professionals, biofuel enthusiasts, and more.

Join the CleanTick Algae Fuels Community Now - http://www.cleantick.com/topic/algae-fuels

Wed July 20 2011 11:16:42 AM by Sumukhi 11 Algae Fuel Companies  |  algae fuel research  |  algae experts  |  algae researchers  |  networking  |  algae

Join the World Algae Leaders @ London - 27 & 28th April, 2011

The date to the highly anticipated European Algae Biomass executive forum is approaching fast. Hosted in London on the 27 & 28 April 2011 and organised by ACI, it will gather senior representatives from leading algaculture, power generators, biorefineries, biofuel producers, oil and gas companies and technology providers.

An exclusive panel of speakers, including CEOs and Presidents from Oilgae, European Algae Biomass Association, OriginOil,  Solix Biofuels,  Algasol Renewables, Algatech Group of Companies and many others will assess continued growth potential in the algae biomass market, look at current and future potential for algal cultivation, fuel production and CO2 sequestration and other key areas of growth, as well as new groundbreaking prospects and benefits of algal technologies.

Oilgae is acting as a Supporting Partner for the event therefore all subscribers of Oilgae are entitled to a special discount to attend the meeting. To claim the discount simply quote ref.: OilgaeEAL1

To view the agenda please click here>>>

For more information and registration contact Dimitri Pavlyk on +44 (0) 207 981 2503 or mailto:dpavlyk@acieu.net

Wed March 23 2011 03:58:22 PM by Sumukhi 40 algae fuel research  |  algae-energy events  |  algae harvesting  |  Algae Biofuels  |  conference

Join a World Class Algae Fuel Research Team

If you work in or dream of working in algae fuels research, this is an opportunity you just cannot miss!

Oilgae is assisting a prestigious India-headquartered company that is embarking on an ambitious project on algae to fuels. We are currently assisting them in setting up a world class scientific and engineering team.

If you are a scientist, researcher or engineer keen on working on an effort that is willing to do everything possible to make sustainable algae biofuels a reality, you should be talking to us.

The project will be predominantly based out of India, hence you should be willing to relocate and work in India.

The company is keen on having a team comprising best of breed experts to tackle all the biological and engineering challenges along the algae to fuel value chain – from strain selection to cultivation to harvesting to conversion to fuel.

Researchers and scientists specializing in one or more of the fields mentioned below are invited to get in touch with us:

  • Algal biologists
  • Botanists
  • Genetic engineers
  • Biotechnologists
  • Cellular Physiologists
  • Plant biochemists
  • Bioprocess engineer
  • System design engineers
  • Innovative chemical process engineers
  • Chemical and physical engineers

Mavericks Welcome as Well

It is well understood that algae to fuel is a highly challenging domain; thus, the company is also keen on having a few “maverick” scientists in their team who could bring forth unexpected concepts and solutions. In this context, we are willing to interact with folks (especially, but not necessarily, scientists) outside of the above-mentioned spectrum and passionate about biofuels research.

If you are keen on working for a team and for an effort that keep you awake at night wondering about possibilities, and would like to work with people who are the best in what they do, you should be talking to us!

Interested? Send a note to Sumukhi Sreevatsan - s.sreevatsan@oilgae.com

Fri January 07 2011 04:14:57 AM by Sumukhi 15 algae fuel research

Amazing Algae-Asia Conference - Who Says What?

A remarkable event comprising of many algae enthusiasts all around the world was conducted by the Centre for Management Technology (CMT) in Singapore on the 19th and the 20th of October.

The event comprised of many intellectual delegates keen on updating their knowledge on the latest developments in the algae-energy industry. Several discerning algologists working on algae-based high value end products fervent on understanding the technologies, status and the key bottlenecks faced by the algae energy industry were also present for this mega event.

 An Eye Opener Indeed! - The conference opened up the horizon of the less initiated to what is possible, what is already happening and what scope exists. An eye opener to many!. Eminent and tech-savvy speakers from various research institutes, companies and consultancies world-over were in attendance. Some of the speakers provided useful insights on how to succeed in the algae-energy business and a few others discussed about the technological developments in the algae-industry and their efforts in this domain.

Of Course, there were the regular Nay sayers and Yeah Sayers! The former were skeptical about the commercialization of algae fuels in the near-future and were quite assertive that eradicating the challenges faced by algae fuels is a long-long-long-term activity. The latter, however, gave an overall positive outlook of the whole algae-fuel scenario by describing their efforts and milestones and future efforts .Some of them explained that by  having a BIG focus on high-value end products while producing biofuels is the route to go?!

 Carbon-dioxide Sequestration-  "ABANDON ALL HOPE" or........ ?!

Among the speakers from the industrial side were - Dr. John Benemann - the author of the book on algal biofuels and by-products, one of the chief scientist of the Aquatic Species Program (ASP) provided some useful insights on the prospects of large-scale algae biofuels production with Municipal and Agricultural waste water.

Dr.Benemann, however, was not very assertive about the carbon-dioxide abatement using algae in the U.S. He exclaimed that the chances of CO2 capture in the United States is as less as 0.1%, hence hopes to capture carbon-dioxide employing algae must be abandoned. However, Australian ?based MBD energy were quite confident about their  collaboration with three Australian-based power plants to capture CO2 using algae. Mr. Tony Clair, Agribusiness Manager  from this company confidently presented their milestones and claimed that their algae- plants  near the power-plant emitters will operate effectively from 2011.

Yet another speaker who threw light on this hot topic was Mr. Steven Martin from Pond Biofuels, he unfortunately couldn't make it for the conference; hence spoke through Skype detailing their tie-up with Ontario-based St. Mary's Cement and their upcoming work for growing algae from stack gas emissions near many more cement plants.

We also had the well-known "Quantum fracturing" company - Orgin Oil highlighting how the large CO2 emitters should venture into this nascent algae industry and their work on their patent-pending unique harvester which separates the biomass leaving the oil on top.  

From Switzerland, we had Dr Jean-Paul , he shared some information about his research on the enhancement of biodiesel production from microalgae species by increasing the addition of carbon-dioxide through gasification with the aid of a catalyst.

Will Algae -Energy Projects Soon Secure Carbon-Financing!? - From the algae business perspective, we had a reputed speaker from KPMG consultants, Malaysia. Mr. Rahul Kar the Director of the carbon and sustainability advisory, KPMG highlighted the procedure to be followed so as to obtain the carbon financing for algae-based projects. He surprisingly remarked that- No algae energy project has ever been taken to the United Nations to secure carbon financing.

Open Ponds or PBR - Nah!!!! , Open Ponds PBR - YES?! -  There have been debates in this industry as to which cultivation method has to be employed - Open-ponds Vs Photobioreactors (PBR). Mr. Vittor Verdelho from Alga Fuel, Portugal highlighted the fact that a technique for the combined use of open-ponds photobioreactors for algae-cultivation will only be a feasible option. He exclaimed ? Open ?ponds or PBRS ? aint gonna work !

Non-Fuel Products First, Fuel Next?! -   The challenges ahead of algae-fuel commercialization were presented by the Managing Director of Aurora Algae formerly known as Aurora Biofuels. Mr. Matt Caspari .The thought-process of Matt was fantabulous. He highlighted the fact that it is a good idea for algae fuel companies to initially focus on high-end non-fuel products from algae, and gradually shift to fuel production as more breakthroughs occur in the algae-fuel industry.

Integrated Algae-Based Remediation and Biofuel Production - There were a few speakers who spoke about the prospects of algae-based bioremediation. Dr.Rupert Craggs from National Institute of Water and Atmospheric research (NIWA) highlighted the efforts pursued by NIWA for algae-based waste water treatment in high-rate algae ponds. He also highlighted the benefits of employing waste-flue gas as a carbon-source into the high-rate algae ponds (HRAP). Most importantly, he exclaimed that the use of colonial algae would be the best option as they can be easily harvested making the harvesting process less-energy intensive.

Will Macroalgae be the Feedstock for the "FUTURE FUEL" ?!

Prof. Dr. Choul-Gyun Lee from INHA university was of an opinion that exploiting the seaweeds in the ocean will be a more viable option to make biofuels sustainable. Apparently, he is working on three projects - biodiesel from microalgae, macroalgae to ethanol and screening strains to be used as biofuel feedstock with the fund of 49 billion Korean Won ( approximately 42 million USD) obtained from the Korean Government.

From a Korean-based company by name  Ecophycotech. Dr. Kyung Kim, the CEO of the company highlighted  the commercial production of microalgae and its alternative markets. Interestingly, the Korea Food & Drug Administration permits to industrialize only two kinds of microalgae (Chlorella and Spirulina), which delays to develop many kinds of microalgal products in Korea.

Myung-Ko Shin from Biolsystem, Korea shared his views on the development of technologies for producing bioethanol from macroalgae.  His key research area involves the production of bioethanol through saccharification and fermentation processes from red algae.

Is Genetic Engineering the Solution to Make Algae Fuel Commercial!? - Research in the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS)  is mainly on studying the lipid metabolism in certain algae strains. Dr. Neil Clarke  a senior scientist from GIS presented the  systems biology of lipid metabolism in various microalgae species. They are also working on a genetic-engineering project termed 1KP wherein , they plan to modify 1000 different species of plants, out of which sequencing various green algae  species for biochemical application is one among their target.

Yet another speaker from Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) also presented his work on the genetic modification of marine-water algae strains such as Nannochlropsis and high-throughput genomics based screening and development on oilgae feedstock.

Dr. Tom Beer, Leader, Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels from Common Wealth Scientific and Industrial Research  CSIRO, Australia provided some useful information on the scope and emerging opportunities for algae-biofuel production unique to countries such as Australia.

Marvelous Networking Opportunity! The networking opportunity the conference offered was simply superb! Good that we had a lot of business cards; we got a brilliant opportunity to connect with many erudite academia, discerning algalogists and algae-industry professionals. One of the most memorable moment my colleague Mathumitha Balu and I shared were that we got an opportunity to dine with Dr. Benemann during the lunch-break on the second-day of the conference.  We really wished we had more time to network with other speakers and delegates as well.

This conference, as promised, proved out to be a junction of top minds in the industry and as Oilgae and others left Singapore they were very happy with knowledge gained on the status and the future of this nascent industry.

To sum up, the experience of the 3rd Algae-World Asia was fantastic, as this summit proved to be a bridge connecting algae-enthusiasts from all over the globe with a sharp expertise and enormous experience to discuss almost all the technologies currently employed for algae exploitation. The thought process of the speakers were remarkable which made us sit-back for their presentations. CMT, an all-women maintained organization ( I say so coz I witnessed only lady volunteers working there from setting up the projectors to taking photographs!) Kudos to CMT for choosing such distinguished speakers and being the organizers for such a magnificent occasion.   

How I wish such conferences occur once in three months. I am sure it will be a tremendous opportunity to learn, share and network with numerous algae-energy enthusiasts from all over the world.

Mon November 01 2010 12:12:09 PM by Sumukhi 3 algae-energy events  |  algae  |  fuels  |  non-fuels  |  Algae Fuel Companies

Conference on Algae Solutions and Investment Opportunities - Singapore, Oct 19-20 2010

The 3rd Algae World Asia conference conducted by the Centre for Management Technology (CMT) in October will run on the 19th and 20th at Goodwood Park Hotel, Singapore.

This conference is designed to act as a catalyst to facilitate constructive exchanges among the Academic, Commercial and Investment community involved in algae sector, with agenda that highlights upcoming opportunities in Asia and spotlights successful Algae businesses.
The conference is expected to attract over 100 participants from  all around the globe. CMT invites other visitors and sponsors to attend this event.

The main themes of the conference are as follows:
  • Sharing of Practical Experiences in Algae Production
  • Value Proposition in Algae-based Carbon Capture
  • Value Proposition in Waste Water Treatment
  • Algae Technology Development in Asia Pacific
  • Current & future Development of Algae-Based Bioenergy

To accomplish the above themes, the event has got eminent speakers such as Dr.John R. Benemann and speakers from MBD Energy Ltd, Aurora Algae Pty Ltd, OriginOil, St. Marys Cement Inc  and many more.

The participants of this conference also include many algae producers, equipment suppliers, algae research institutes, financiers and investors, power plant operators and more from across the globe.

 Many companies involved in making high-value algae end -products and other algae- products will also be participating and presenting their technology during this mega event.

Should your firm be interested in joining as a visitor or sponsor, please get in touch with:

Ms. Sharmila,
Centre for Management Technology

Oilgae is a media partner for the event and will be assisting CMT in promoting this exciting event.

For all the algae enthusiasts www.cmtevents.com/main.aspx?ev=101038&pu=204187
Thu September 23 2010 03:49:02 AM by Sumukhi 6 neutraceuticals  |  Biofuel  |  algae  |  algae-energy events

How are algae able to grow in the dark?

Dark fermentation is in the news after 

Solazyme , an US based algae company delivered 1500 gallons of jet fuel to the US navy early July.

Interestingly, this company 's approach ( Earlier post) is different from the rest, they grow genetically engineered algae  in the dark and follow what is called the heterotrophic fermentation -  providing sugars for the algae, the sugars act as the carbon-source, the algae eat that up and accumulate lipids in their cells.

I was hence wondering how these algae strains which are known to grow only in the presence of light, photosynthetic  are  able to grow even when there is absolutely no light available. Though I realized that genetic engineering plays a role here, wanted to know more details about the genes which enable a photosynthetic organism to grow in the absence of light.

How and when did they isolate the  first algae strain that can grow in dark?

In 2001, researchers at the Department of Plant Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Palo Alto, California, and Martek Biosciences Corporation in Columbia, Maryland were the first to introduce a fundamental metabolic change in a single-celled alga so that it no longer required light to grow.

What did they do next?

The scientists first inserted one gene that catalyses glucose transport into the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, (P. tricorntum is a oil-yielding algae which has about of 20% of oil in it)  The scientists then individually inserted several genes responsible for glucose transport from three different organisms into                  P. tricornutum.

The  genes  inserted were 1. hup1 gene - Chlorella kessleri  .2. Three other genes, hxt1, hxt2 and hxt4, come from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 3. The final gene, glut1 from an unknown algae strain . Out of these genes, the hup1 and the glut1 showed great promise of enabling the organism to thrive in the dark!

To cut the long story short, it essentially means that the algae gets the energy exclusively from the glucose and those those two genes help the algae to consume the glucose and enables the organism to thrive in the dark!

See more -  http://www.greencarcongress.com/2008/02/solazyme-ups-so.html

Mon August 30 2010 02:40:57 PM by Sumukhi 60 algae  |  genetic engineering

Algae.Tec signs Two MOU

Algae.tec Limited, which has secured the exclusive global rights to a pioneering highly-efficient algae growth and harvesting system (the McConchie-Stroud System) that produces algal products (such as algal oil and biomass) that can be used to generate sustainable bio-fuels, today announced two MOU's for non-binding commitments to deploy the technology in China and Australia.

Algae.Tec is currently undertaking an Initial Public Offering by way of a prospectus dated 16 July 2010 with the intention to list on the ASX by the end of September 2010. The Company?s ASX code will be AEB.

What sets Algae Tec's technology apart is that it exploits a patented system of algae growth not within ponds but within converted shipping containers. Scalability thus becomes modular, and land requirement is reduced by the ability to stack those modules. The closed modules are not exposed to the same problems as open ponds. And, most importantly, the modules are readily transportable.

In the pond system, the CO2 must come to the pond. To improve yields and accelerate algal growth, captured CO2 can be introduced but (a) it must be transported to the site from an emitter and (b) a lot of the introduced CO2 will simply bubble out of the pond again. In Algae.Tec?s system, the ?pond? comes to the CO2.

Closed modules can be stacked adjacent to an emitter (eg a power station) and everybody wins. The emitter has a direct and measurable carbon offset and the introduced CO2 exponentially accelerates algae biomass production for conversion into commercial products which are themselves a source of renewable alternative energy (which in theory can also be used as an energy source by said emitter).

Partnership with Shoalhaven Starches Pty Ltd.
Algae.Tec has now signed a memorandum of understanding with Shoalhaven Starches Pty Ltd, a subsidiary of the Manildra Group. Manildra is primarily a producer of wheat flour and secondarily a producer of differentiated by-products such as gluten, glucose and starch. Nowra-based Shoalhaven Starches converts starch into ethanol, making the Manildra Group Australia?s largest ethanol producer.

Manildra's ethanol production plant operates using a CO2-emitting power plant. Therein lies a potential source of CO2 for exploitation by Algae.Tec technology, but CO2 is actually also emitted from the conversion of starch into ethanol. For Algae.Tec, its a double-whammy.

Algae.Tec has thus found the site for its demonstration plant. At the time its IPO prospectus was published, it had not. This means a supplementary prospectus has now been published and the close of application date for the IPO has been extended to September 17. Algae.Tec hopes to have the demonstration plant in operation by the June quarter, 2011.

The demonstration plant will consist of two or three container modules but if it proves successful the MOU extends to the construction of Algae.Tec's first commercial plant at the site consisting of some 200-300 containers. Requisite council and environmental applications for such a plant will be filed immediately rather than waiting until after the demonstration proves viable.

The Nowra-based plant would then be the world's first commercial algae operation. At this point, Algae.Tec is not yet planning to produce its own ethanol from the resultant biomass given there are a number of options to be explored, including directing the algae to the production of nutrient-rich stock feed for sale in the region.

Another MOU
Algae.Tec has also signed another new MOU which becomes part of the supplementary prospectus. The MOU involves Algae.Tec in a partnership with Bioenergy Investment Ltd ? an alternative energy investment vehicle incorporated in Hong Kong. Bioenergy Investment is itself a joint venture between Hong Kong company Pacific Minerals and Australian company RKD International.

The purpose of the joint venture is to first seek intellectual property protection for Algae.Tec?s technology in China.

Clearly Algae.Tecs two new MOUs, to add to existing the MOU with logistics and plant construction and management specialist Leighton Holdings, are of a material nature. Hence the supplementary prospectus and extended closing date for the $7.5m IPO.

Prospective investors must take note that while all of the above sounds very promising, algae technology is yet to be proven on a commercial scale anywhere in the world. While demonstration plants are intended to provide proof, there are no guarantees. This is a speculative investment. There will be no cashflow ahead of commercialisation. And the commerialisation phase will require the issuing of significantly more capital.

Fri August 27 2010 04:53:55 AM by Sumukhi 12 investment  |  Biofuel  |  algae  |  Algae Fuel Companies

A New Type of Chlorophyll Discovered after 60 years of Research

An interdisplinary team of scientists discover a new form of Chlorophyll which could lead to new developments of new methods to produce biofuels. The team had a group of scientists

-  Dr Martin Schliep and Dr Zhengli Cai (University of Sydney, Australia);

-  Associate Professor Robert Willows (Macquarie University, Australia);

-  Professor Brett Neilan (University of New South Wales, Australia)

-  Professor Hugo Scheer (University of Munich, Germany)

These scientists worked together and characterized the absorption properties and chemical structure of chlorophyll f, making it the fifth known type of chlorophyll molecule on Earth. Believe it or not, many scientists have been researching on this for over 60 years now.

Chlorophyll, as you might be knowing is an important green pigment found in algae which  helps the  algae to obtain energy from light.,  It  was earlier believed that these pigments absorbs light more strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum followed by the red spectrum and so on. However, this new discovery extends that range all the way to the red end of that spectrum.

This finding could lead to the development of new methods to produce biofuels more efficiently. The efficiency of the photosynthesis is entirely dependent on the type and intensity of sunlight the algae is exposed to and  this discovery could thus help us to probably use a suitable  algae strain or probably engineer a strain which can accumulate lipids in its cells and produce biofuels even when its exposed to multiple types of light.

If the algae is able to make effective utilization of a wider portion of the light spectrum, than it naturally produces a lot more energy, which in turn allows it to grow faster. This means that the point is located just beyond the red end of the visible light spectrum.

There  are four forms of Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll c1 Chlorophyll c2 Chlorophyll d.  This newly discovered chlorophyll is called Chlorophyll f which can utilize lower energy than any other knows chlorophyll.

This chlorophyll was first identified rather accidently discovered in what is called stromatolites. Stromatolites are basically layered structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by blue-green algae.

The samples used in this particular investigation were collected from the Hamelin pool, in the Shark Bay of western Australia. The research team  believes that microorganisms known as filamentous cyanobacteria are responsible for the production of chlorophyll f in stromatolites.

More information: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=new-form-chlorophyll
Fri August 27 2010 04:04:10 AM by Sumukhi 59 biofuels  |  algae  |  photosynthesis  |  chlorophyll

A Commercial PBR in California

BioCentric Energy an algae company based out of technical team is working at its headquarters this week preparing and assembling all components of the commercial PBR system for the Death Valley Junction, California site.

The team is in the process of loading the 20ft trailer that recently arrived from South Carolina last Friday, with the PBR corners, plastic tubes, breathing apparatus, skid, motors and other parts necessary in completing the installation. The BioCentric Energy team anticipates that the first half of its client's one-acre system will be operational by the end of next week.

BioCentric Energy is finalizing contracts with Kuehnle AgroSystems, a Hawaiian company purchasing the Company's PBR systems for research and development of their algae strains, bio-fuels and several other applications.Kuehnle's Chairman of the Board exhibited at BioCentric Energy's open house last Saturday and took the opportunity to meet several BEHL shareholders and investors

The BioCentric Energy open house was well received by all and allowed shareholders, investors and potential clients the opportunity to meet the BEHL team, share ideas, ask questions and see the working commercial PBR systems.

The feedback was so positive that the Company is now considering holding an annual open house next year. All shareholders are encouraged to e-mail in their feedback or ideas for future shareholder events.
Wed August 25 2010 09:05:28 AM by Sumukhi 6

Algae Fuels- Emerging opportunity for India

When algae are grown they should be provided the best possible conditions to achieve their growth potential. I was earlier a bit skeptical about growing algae in open-ponds. However, when I visualize a country such as India - a few states in India have ample of land, sunshine throughout the year and easy access to marine water, isn't growing algae in open-ponds using marine water a good option? I say it's a big YES!

Many scientists claim that filtered sea water is a good medium for algae to grow, though additional nutrient requirement to some extent might be required. Again, the nutrient cost is less, research studies reveal that it is as less as $1 for 80 Kg's of algae biomass.

Considering the harvesting of algae, cheap labor is a major advantage offered by India, so why not use semi-automated methods for harvesting algae which is less energy intensive and less costly.

Apparently, there are a few algae farms, specifically Spirulina farms which are managed by the local village women. There is a farm at Madurai - Follow the link - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U6cslNtc6P4
wherein there are 40 tanks maintained by 15 women, they take care of both the upstream and the downstream processes of spirulina cultivation and production of the end-product.

All this might not be exactly the same for biofuel strains of algae, however, in my opinion,this is how things should evolve for algae biofuel commercialization in India as well.

As said earlier, most of the states in India experiences sunlight throughout the year, so solar drying is an excellent option.Similarly, dewatering is also done manually. Here I foresee an issue for extraction, as for Spirulina, it is dried, powdered and sold at a high price. There are other challenges if biofuels are considered, extraction is difficult.

May be along with biofuel, some expensive by-product should be produced. Many companies are actually trying to that, a few Indian researchers are producing biobutanol and other products to cope up the cost.
Wed August 18 2010 10:06:48 AM by Sumukhi 7 cultivation  |  open-ponds  |  algae  |  Biofuel