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Take the Algae Fuel Challenge

Dear All,


Some of us are war torn veterans in the field of algae fuels and many of us are young turks with fancy degrees from ivy league schools having published several papers and even owning some patents. We know the value of cracking the algae fuel challenges. We have tried in the past as an individual with some success but no great breakthroughs. We all know algae can save the world.

Take the algae fuel challenge” is an effort from Oilgae to bring about experts in  each of these challenge areas ( given below) together. Oilgae will create an ambience to enable them to discuss, debate and crack the challenges to make algae fuels a reality.

We invite you to use the section pertinent to your area of expertise and lets get cracking the algae fuel challenge.

Take the Algae Fuel Challenge NOW!


Building Low Cost Photobioreactors
Devising Sustainable Mechanisms for Algae-based CO2 Capture
Reducing the Cost and Energy Consumption for Algae Harvesting
Using Algal Genetics Effectively to Make Algae Fuels A Reality
Decreasing Contamination and Increasing Algae Yields in Raceway Ponds
Large-scale Cultivation of Microalgae in Diverse Wastewater
Making Algae Fuels Sustainable through the Use of Co-products and By-products
Increasing the Yield of Macroalgae for Biofuels
Devising Cost Effective Drying for Microalgae
Identifying Optimal Micro and Macro Algae Strains for Biofuel Production
Thu July 14 2011 01:11:08 PM by Karthi 4

Online Cleantech Networking Community - CleanTick

CleanTick aspires to be a catalyst for cleantech worldwide. You might ask “How?”

The platform provides some useful features for the key cleantech change agents – such as researchers and scientists, industry professionals, investors and evangelists/enthusiasts.

For instance,

The Projects section enables those involved in cleantech projects rto showcase their work and get appreciation and help.

The Q&A section gets answers to critical cleantech questions from experts worldwide.

The Profile section allows you to project your green credentials to the world.

CleantTick 360 provides the latest updates, videos and events for all the major cleantech domains. Other sections such as Pages, Places etc enable specific activities by users.

Sections at CleanTick cover key cleantech domains such as renewable
energy and renewable fuels, energy efficiency, water, ecology and
biodiversity, sustainable materials, cleantech enablers such as
biotechnology and more.

All the sections and tools together make CleanTick a great place for
those who wish to be an active part of the global cleantech movement. If
you are related to clean technology in any form, CleanTick is a
community you must belong to.


Fri March 04 2011 11:22:12 AM by Karthi 29 cleantech

Algae That Can Thrive in Fresh-Water and Salt-Water

A team of biologists from the Monterey Bay Aquarium research
institute have deciphered an algae which is said to have the capacity
to thrive in fresh water as well as marine water. These newly discovered
microbes are termed as “rappemonads” and they may be distributed world

While performing phottosynthesis, like other algae, these 
rappemonads release oxygen. The researchers of Monterey Bay set to
research on this after they came across a scientific paper published by a
group of scientists who reported finding  a strange piece of DNA in a
water sample from the Atlantic Ocean near North Carolina, one that
didn’t belong to any known organisms.

This remained untouched for about 10 years, until the researchers of
Monterey Bay decided to look for the organisms that made the DNA. With
the assistance of an international team of scientists, corresponding DNA
in water sample from the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and lakes in
the United Kingdom, suggesting that the organisms live in many
different place. After examining the physical features of the organisms,
the researchers realized that these organisms had the capability to
perform photosynthesis.

The researchers have planned to now proceed with this to determine if
photosynthesis is the sole means of getting energy for these
microorganisms, or whether they also get energy from eating food.

Source: http://www.thecalifornian.com/article/20110122/NEWS01/101220317

Mon January 24 2011 04:50:14 PM by Karthi 59

Some Interesting Facts About Algae

  1. Algae is a one-celled plant that can grow in your pool if conditions are favorable
  2. There are over 20,000 known varieties of algae
  3. Algae are mainly found in marine or freshwater environments
  4. Algae produce oxygen which other aquatic life uses.
  5. Algae are important to humans in the form of food and medicine.
  6. Algae are vital in many food chains acting as the primary producer of organic matter.
  7. In some areas of the Indian ocean the sea surface lights up at night. It is so bright that one can read a newspaper. This light is caused by tiny sea algae, the Dino-flagellata. Sometimes the lightened surface has a diameter of more than 1.5 km.
  8. Algae are used in many wastewater treatment facilities, reducing the need for harmful chemicals, and are used in some power plants to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
  9. Red algae are important members of coral reefs. Red algae are unusual among the algae because they can include in their cell walls calcium carbonate which makes the plants hard and resistant to wear.
  10. Brown algae are found mainly in the tidal zones of temperate to polar seas, but some exist in the deep ocean. Among the brown algae are the largest and most complex of the algae; well-known forms include the giant kelp and the free-floating sargassum weed.
  11. Algae have chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis.
  12. Kelps are the largest algaes. They can be more than 200 feet.
  13. It is the major food for fishes.
  14. The oceans cover about 71% of the Earth’s surface, yet algae produce more than 71% of the Earth’s oxygen; in fact, some scientists believe that algae produce 87% of the world’s oxygen.
  15. They also help remove huge amounts of Carbon Dioxide.
  16. Oxygen was poisonous to the organisms that populated the early Earth. By producing oxygen, the first algae may have created the greatest toxic waste crisis in history.
  17. Fossilized Algae are used to make dynamite.
  18. Algae may be able to help save the planet.
let me know is there any other interesting facts about algae.. :)
Mon January 10 2011 02:04:29 AM by Karthi 33 facts about algae

Algae Pollution a Worldwide Problem Affecting Marine Life

"That green algae floating in the water, it?s dead right?" David Ochs asked. David is an officer of the National Association of Diving Instructors (NAUI) and a veteran diver. He saw the green algae floating in mid-water off Delray Beach, Florida, during a dive with his students.

The algae drifted northward in the flow of current. Some clumps were small, others were long and filamentous. The entire water column contained algae. Underwater, reefs in the Atlantic Ocean off South Florida have been plagued with algae. I've studied environmental issues off the same reefs from Palm Beach to Boca Raton over the last 25 years. It is easy enough to identify the major source of ocean pollution: people. Too many people living on swamp and sand.

Algae Proliferation

Issues that arise from over-population include development, agriculture, and waste. In Florida everything that goes upon the land ends up in the ocean. The complex systems of run-off during frequent rains in the tropics, evaporation, and direct ocean dumping create nourishment for algae. Waste containing nitrogen and phosphorus creates an environment favoring algal growth in the marine environment.

Once that concept is understood, everything else is simple. Political machinations led to off-shore oil drilling despite dire predictions of crisis caused by massive spills. Pollution by algae is an even greater peril since it is a quiet menace.

Only a handful of scuba divers even notice the problem. Reefs are dead. Entire reef structures are overgrown with thick mats of algae. Sea fans, sponges, and hard corals are all covered with heavy mats of algae. When I take my fingers and touch a sea fan branch in contaminated areas, it breaks off, brittle and dead.

What NAUI instructor David Ochs observed in the water column was green algae growing in suspension. It will settle as soon as the current stops. Frequently there is no current in the area of the reefs depending on the meandering of the Gulf Stream. The algae will settle and grow on the reef. Algae proliferate quickly in warm water nourished by sunshine filtering down from above. It is a plant. Given the advantage of increased nitrogen in sea water it thrives.

I have identified two major species of algae in what is an underwater cocktail: Lyngbya, a blue green algae, and Geramium, a red algae. The Geramium gives a red-brown color to tufts clinging to corals underwater. My findings have been confirmed by specialists at the Smithsonian Institution.

This is no revelation. Algae have contaminated and killed reefs around the world. When I studied the problem off the Island of Corsica in the Mediterranean, it was clear that a village with a year around population of 5,000 that swelled to 55,000 in summer with the influx of tourism could not handle the increased load of sewage. The result of additional effluent into the sea was algal growth. Algae contaminated corals underwater and killed them.

The same instances of algae proliferation have been seen around the world. The biology of it is simple. Feed one species nutrients and it is favored in nature. It grows out of control and subsequently kills other forms of life

Pollution control

Captain Craig Smart volunteered his dive boat, Starfish Enterprise, out of Boynton Beach, to take a group of volunteers attached to Reef Rescue to the site of the Delray Beach sewage outfall pipe. The conduit is a huge 4-foot diameter pipe that was built a mile out into the ocean. The Reef Rescue group dove on it with television news cameramen.

I tied a float off to the pipe so that the divers could descend with their cameras and document the event. It was a landmark. Government ordered the sewage outfall pipe, one of nine in Palm Beach County, shut down. At the same time, on land, news cameras taped a worker closing a valve. In the water the cameras recorded the diminishing flow and eventual halt to the effluent.

The sewage outfall pipe that for years spewed sewage, treated and at times untreated, into the ocean was closed but not abandoned. The catch was that the city of Delray Beach could use the pipe when it rained and more effluent backed up in their holding systems than could be contained. More than could be deep well injected to get rid of it.

Captain Smart had divers in the vicinity of the Delray Beach sewage outfall pipe a month later, and it was clear that it was back on line. Swirls of water appeared on the surface above the outfall pipe indicating it was open and being used. This after mandated closure.

Agricultural Causes

It is not only sewage that contains nitrogen. Everywhere in coastal Florida storm drains gather rain water. Everything on the land is washed into these storm drains. Those little warning signs that lawns have been sprayed and are dangerous to people and animals for 24 hours or more, mean that when it rains those chemicals go right into storm drains. Everything on roadways, golf courses, lawns flows with the rain into pipes and is immediately and without any treatment of any kind sent into the Intracoastal Waterway and thence at tide change into the ocean. Some cities are trying to stem the flow by starting settling ponds near the Intracoastal. These still do not remove nitrogen.

Florida's agriculture is likewise nurtured with fertilizers and chemical sprays. No agriculture could take place in sand without artificial means of nurturing it. Sugar cane and other crops as well as animals require feed. Feed contains nitrogen. Animal waste contains nitrogen.

Florida is the largest beef producer in the United States. Animal feed lots raise beef and other animals for slaughter. Beef, hogs and other animals are sold by weight. They are fed up with various products as well as chemical additives. They produce waste that must be disposed of. On land that waste adds to the nitrogen load that reaches massive canals that criss-cross Florida.

The canals lead to the Intracoastal Waterway and are controlled by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and water management districts. When it rains and water levels rise, engineers open gates and dump water from canals. This contaminated water reaches the ocean through cuts in the Intracoastal at tide change.

Liquid from animal waste evaporates. We know from common experience that any spill evaporates. Spill liquid, be it gasoline, chemicals, or urine, and it evaporates. It doesn't disappear?it just evaporates. It enters the atmosphere. It still doesn?t disappear somewhere into the galaxies of outer space as some might be deluded into thinking. Minute particles hang around and are gathered in clouds and returned to earth in rain. Contamination goes up and it comes down exactly in the same structure. Another peril to the marine environment.

There is nothing as startling as massive oil spills coming ashore. Those produce a wail of lament, lawsuits, and demands by law makers for fixing blame and responsibility. The quiet menace of algae contamination of ocean resources goes on without notice. Reefs are killed and their ability to support life diminished more certainly but less dramatically than from oil spills.

How to Help

There is no easy solution. Development should have been strictly limited. Agriculture using fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides prohibited. Feed lots controlled. Population settled not on fragile Everglades or beach fronts but in areas that already had adequate sewage treatment as well as a nitrogen and heavy metal contaminant removal processes in place before the first house was built. Landscapes and recreational pursuits like golf courses should have been contained to prevent run off. Great and massive canals that throw away precious fresh water in drought crisis should be changed from flood control to water conservation systems.

Billions of dollars later, only an imperfect system can be predicted if it is ever implemented or effective. An oil spill is a minor annoyance by comparison. What David Ochs and his divers observed, what Captain Craig Smart sees every day, what goes on underwater is everybody?s responsibility. It is easy to dismiss since so very few observe the silent killer at work destroying what required nature millions of years to create. We are quickly destroying the very thing that makes life viable in Florida.

Without offshore reefs, hurricanes would have swept Florida?s few feet of sand into the ocean eons ago. Without reefs, no marine life would find homes and no recreational pursuits available. Without reefs, life as we know it cannot exist around the world.

Do something, anything, even if it is to restrict use of nitrogen based fertilizers on your plants. Use organic products instead of chemicals. Insure that detergents are environment safe. A little bit by many goes a long way toward solving massive issues. When gasoline tops $3 per gallon, it is wise to turn off excess electric lights when not needed. One bulb a day will make a difference. Power plants spew out contaminants despite tighter regulations on use of fossil fuels.

Old hat but sound solutions that require no government regulation. The quiet menace of algae pollution has seen government regulation to attempt to control it. Since government is often the flagrant violator of the laws, it goes unpunished. Has any attention been paid to the issue of algae contamination of the offshore reefs? Compare it to the recent oil spill that reaches the attention of people everywhere, every day. Consider this worse and in far greater proportion. It is a silent killer, requiem to the reefs.

Dr. John Christopher Fine is a marine biologist and Master Scuba Instructor and Instructor Trainer. He has authored 24 books. His research and studies have created awareness for ocean conservation worldwide

Source - http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/38228/
Mon January 10 2011 02:04:29 AM by Karthi 31 algae pollution  |  marine life

How to Make Biodiesel Out of Algae

Algae's high-yield, low-price production value makes it a practical solution in the search for green energy. This perhaps unlikely alternative to food crop fuels like soybean and corn oil requires nothing more than a reflective pond or tank to cultivate. While the extraction process can be complicated and costly, algae crops yield up to 30 times more energy per acre than food crops, according to the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  • Decide what type of algae you will grow. Choose a species with high levels of chlorophyll and a high percentage of oil yields. Most algae used for oil production already possess these qualities, since they are the most powerful and practical algae for this purpose. Your growing environment and chosen method will also be deciding factors in the strain of algae you choose. Some algae grow well in hot, shallow ponds, called photobioreactors, which work well in the heat of the desert. Other algae, like cryophytic algae, grow in cold, icy conditions.
  • Cultivate the algae in your chosen aerial, aquatic or marine device, depending on the location. It is possible to cultivate algae in almost any environment. You can even extract algae for oil from sewage using a sewage treatment facility.
  • Harvest up to 90 percent of the algae with each harvest. Algae duplicate every 24 hours, so your crop will be ready to harvest again soon. The waste liquor that comes as a byproduct of the harvesting process can be processed further to recover valuable material.
  • Extract the oil from the algae through one of the many available extraction processes. Use enzymes as a solvent through enzymatic extraction; utilize an ultrasonic reactor to break down the cell walls, or extract the oil through osmosis, using osmotic shock. Most methods of extraction are expensive and require advanced machinery.
  • Distill the extracted oil to remove any bits of useable algae. The final product is triglyceride, which must be put through a biodiesel processor to make biodiesel; or use it directly in most diesel engines. The byproduct is leftover algae proteins. Through extrusion and dewatering processes, you can extract these healthy proteins to be used as healthy ingredients in animal and human foods.
Mon January 10 2011 02:04:29 AM by Karthi 44

A tale of blue green algae, attacking birds, Hollywood and dementia

Many listeners especially Australians, would be familiar with" blue-green algae". In particular, if you have spent any time in South Australia, you may recall periodic government alerts warning against drinking the water or using it for recreation during outbreaks or "blooms".

The term algal "bloom" describes an increase in the number of algal cells to a point where they can discolour the water, produce unpleasant tastes and odours, affect shellfish and fish populations and seriously reduce the water quality (1). Since many types of algae produce toxins, they can also make you very sick and have been responsible for the deaths of livestock and marine species.

Wed August 25 2010 04:02:06 AM by Karthi 28

Report Says Algal Biofuels May Not Cut Carbon Emissions

A new study suggests that overall the CO2 emissions attendant to producing biofuel from algae may be worse than those from corn, canola (rape-seed) or switch grass. The main problem is the use of carbon dioxide brought from elsewhere in "gas-bottles" and inputs of fertilizer, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. According to a Life-cycle analysis, the land-based crops all were found to sequester more carbon than that incurred in growing them, while the contrary was true for growing algae, meaning that replacing fossil fuels by algal fuels could cause an overall increase in carbon emissions.

Not surprisingly, the report just published in the prestigious American Chemical Society journal, Environmental Science and Technology, has put the cat among the pigeons, since there are many companies gearing-up to produce algal biofuels. The US Algal Biomass Organisation has claimed that the study contained "faulty assumptions" and was based on "grossly outdated data".

Now, I am a fan of growing algae not the least of which because to do so means that far more fuel might be produced per unit area than is the case from the above mentioned land-based crops, as algae have a better photosynthetic yield; there is no need to use freshwater since algae grow well (even better) on saline waters or wastewaters, thus preserving an already endangered resource; you can put the tanks on any land (even deserts), so there is no need to compromise food-production in a competition over the same arable land to grow food-crops or fuel-crops; they might be used to clean CO2 from the smokestacks of power-stations fired from e.g. gas or coal; they might be used to clean wastewaters of nitrogen and phosphorus.

On closer inspection, the report is in fact very positive about growing algae, particularly in the latter two respects. Read positively, the data are only in opposition to making fuel from algae if nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients are added in their mineral forms, and if the CO2 has to be injected into the system (transported as a compressed gas) as made mainly by the process of steam reforming methane, along with most of the world's available hydrogen:

(Overall) CH4 2H2O --> CO2 4H2.

That H2 is used to make nitrogen (ammonium sulphate and nitrate) fertilizer by reacting it with N2 via the Haber Bosch process to make ammonia (NH3), and so there is in a way a symbiosis between the production of CO2 and NH3. The phosphorus would likely come from mining rock phosphate, which requires energy too.

However, the figures in this cradle to farm gate analysis (i.e. they do not include the energy costs of processing the algae or other biomass into fuel per se) show that if the production of algae is combined with a wastewater treatment strategy, so that N and P are removed from it by the algae (an otherwise energy intensive procedure), and fed with CO2 from smokestacks, most of the environmental burdens attendant to growing algae are offset (i.e. an algae production plant, a power station and a sewage-works should all be placed in mutual proximity). Of three possible municipal wastewater effluents evaluated as a source of N and P, the most effective was source-separated urine with a very high content of these elements, in which case growing algae became more environmentally beneficial than the land-based crops.

Even if there remains some dispute over the exact figures used, what the study does highlight is the importance of developing an integrated paradigm of production and recycling for algal fuel production as I stressed before in the context of rare metals such as are required to maintain the electronics and solar power industries.
Thu June 03 2010 05:12:25 AM by Karthi

Study Says Algae Biofuel Has Dirty Life Cycle

Algae has seemed like a great biofuel candidate because it's extremely efficient at creating energy from sunlight and it could potentially form closed loops for power plants - absorbing exhaust while creating new fuel - but a recent study has knocked algae off its pedestal.

University of Virginia researchers have found that the life cycle of algal biofuel produces high levels of greenhouse gas emissions -- much more than it sequesters.

The culprit is the large amount of fertilizer used to produce the algae. The fertilizers come from petroleum-bases sources and emit nitrous oxide. The researchers propose using fertilizer from sewage plants as a way around the problem.

It looks like we are still far away from an ideal biofuel, if there is one.
Fri May 28 2010 06:40:14 AM by Karthi 10

It's the process, stupid. Biofuels from microalgae are not yet sustainable.

Microalgae are some of the world's oldest organisms, phylogenetically. Microalgae can be found virtually everywhere, adapted to almost any habitat, from oceans and fresh-water lakes to deserts, arctic regions and the interior of rocks.

Because microalgae can, in principle, be easily and quickly propagated, these organisms have been the focus of applied research investigating the generation of valuable biomass. Decisive factors in the rising intersts for algae include its ability to accommodate large quantities of lipids under certain circumstances, and the possibility to propagate microalgae in water resources which are not usually exploitable (salt, waste and brackish water), in areas that have remained unsuitable for agriculture, in order to pull large quantities of CO_2 out of the atmosphere. Microalgae would thus be able (at least in theory) to provide a sustainable source of biofuel without competing with agricultural production. On account of various technical advantages, such as energy fuel value, energy density and compatibility with existing technologies, many researchers consider biodiesel the preferred final source of energy to be produced out of algae.

At first glance, producing biodiesel from algae biomass is a simple technical process. The algae must be harvested from the culture medium and dried before the lipids contained within can be extracted and ultimately, converted into biodiesel. The essential feasibility of this procedure at laboratory scale has been demonstrated by many scientists. Already sixty-five years ago, scientists succeeded in extracting oils for technical applications from microalgae, diatoms in this case . In 1942, Harder and von Witsch obtained about two grams of oil per square metre of culturing area per day using a simple culturing system. Today researchers achieved results of an average of 5 to 10 grams oil per square meter per day, over productive months. While significantly greater yields were observed on certain days, the decisive factor for evaluating productivity is the average productivity over a period of several months.

Sunlight is the energy source behind microalgae growth. The availability of light limits the amount of biomass that can be produced. On average, annual solar radiation in Germany is approximately 1000 kWh. The maximum theoretically attainable efficiency of photosynthesis with respect to the energy of solar radiation is 11%. At a fuel value of about 6 KWh per kilogram for algae biomass, in Germany there is a maximum potential annual algae biomass accretion of approximately 100 grams per square meter per day (in the Sahara, this value would be approximately double). Considering an average oil content of 30%, theoretically a maximum of about 30 gram of extractable algae oil could be produced per square metre and day.

The yields produced are already up to 30% of the thermodynamic maximum. Even if, after 65 years of research and development, microalgal productivity could be increased above the currently achievable quantity, the increase would only be by a factor of 2 in optimistic scenarios.

The question of energy balance is an essential factor influencing sustainability of biomass production. How much energy is in the biomass and how much energy is required for production and refining? One kilogram of dried algae biomass has a fuel value of 27 MJ. The state of technology indicates employing a paddle mixer to continuously mix an algae culture, the mixer requiring about 2 MJ of energy to produce one kilogram of algae biomass. The fertilizers required are also obtained by expending energy; for of algae, the energy required for this ranges from 5 to 12 MJ. Pumps will be required for harvesting, replenishing and emptying basins and maintaining water levels. Assuming a water volume to be moved of about 10 to 60 cubic metres per kilogram of algae produced, and an energy requirement of 0.1 kW per cubic metre, up to 16 MJ of energy are required per kilogram of algae. Finally, consider the energy required for harvesting: even assuming that the algae could be sedimented spontaneously or by adding flocculants and thus be enriched by a factor of 10, it remains necessary to further concentrate the remaining volume before drying. Considering that a separator requires 1 kWh per cubic metre, there is a further increase of 3.6 MJ per kilogram of algae. A band filter press would require half as much energy. A further 7 to 8 MJ per kilogram are required for drying the algae.

With recourse to the usual current technology, at least 35 to 45 MJ of energy must be expended in order to produce a "value" of 27 MJ in dry algal biomass. This simple estimate does not take into account many steps in the total production process of actual biofuel such as biodiesel that also require energy. The energy costs for transport, supplying CO_2 to the cultures, preparation and regeneration of culture media, cleaning procedures and finally, the extraction process, would have to be taken into account. It should also be taken into consideration that each step in the process is accompanied by a certain loss factor. The above estimate operates with the unrealistic assumption of zero loss during the procedures. The basic data used for this calculation are derived from practical experience at considerably smaller facilities. Higher energy costs are to be expected in larger facilities in the future, possessing multiple square kilometres, since liquids such as culture medium etc. will have to be transported over longer distances.

The negative energy balance is not the only problem in evaluating the sustainability of algae biodiesel. There is a range of other, unsolved problematic issues that will be briefly outlined.

As many studies have already shown, it is not possible to prevent undesired organisms in open ponds over an extended period (e.g. "wild" algae, bacteria, protozoa, water fleas and insects, such as mosquitoes). This could make the use of herbicides or pesticides necessary over large areas. Mixed cultures would become established, making it impossible to market the biomass as higher quality.

Since at least 3-10mm of liquid evaporate per day from /open ponds/, considerable quantities of fresh water will be required to prevent salt concentrations from rising.

It is currently unknown to what extent culture medium can be reused and what would be necessary to clean the waste water.

The land required for facilities of the size required may not be immediately usable for agriculture, however the land is valuable to the population in the area. Infrequently used areas of land are often valuable habitats for rare and protected plants and animals.

In conclusion, it can be determined that at first glance, microalgae appear to be an attractive source of biomass. A more detailed consideration of energy requirements, however, indicates that the practice is not sustainable because of the negative energy balance associated with the production process. Culture stability, media recycling and harvesting are still a significant challenge and require further research. Field demonstration projects are necessary to advance understanding the possible environmental risk of large scale microalgal monocultures.
Thu May 27 2010 09:31:18 AM by Karthi