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Algae bioremediaton patent !

The treatment includes removing organic matter fromwastewater and the second type of treatment includes removing nutrients fromwastewater. The step of removing organic matter includes exposingmicroorganisms in wastewater to oxygen in the presence of biological chips.


 


 Microorganisms may beexposed to oxygen in a surface-area-to-volume ratio that is between about 32square feet per cubic foot and about 130 square feet per cubic foot. 
The stepof removal of nutrients, in this embodiment, includes treating wastewater in analgal pond in the presence of a spectrum of radiation having wavelengthsranging from about 10.sup.2 nm to about 10.sup.6 nm. 


 


The step of treating wastewater in an algal pond may includeaerating wastewater. The algal pond is preferably a high-rate algal pond("HRAP") providing a surface area that is between about 1000 squarefeet and about 50,000 square feet for wastewater treatment. 


The HRAP may bemaintained at a temperature that is between about 21.degree. C. and about35.degree. C. The HRAP may have a channel length that is between about 200 feetand about 3000 feet. A serpentine path inside the HRAP may define the channel. 


 


You may want to read the rest of the details in the patent Application Information given below.


 


Richard Spyros
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Patent application title: SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Inventors:  Christopher OTT 
Agents:  EcoTech Law Group, P.C. 
Assignees: 
Origin: SAN FRANCISCO, CA US 
IPC8 Class: AC02F320FI 
USPC Class: 
Publication date: 10/07/2010 
Patent application number: 20100252498 
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Abstract:
A method of wastewater treatment is described. The method includes: (i) receiving wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion; (ii) performing a first type of treatment on wastewater to produce wastewater having a first property which is capable of changing; (iii) preventing the first property from changing; (iv) performing a second type of treatment on wastewater; and wherein the first property includes at least one property selected from a group consisting of biochemical oxygen demand ("BOD") level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content and nutrient level.
Claims:
1. A method of wastewater treatment, comprising:receiving wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion;performing a first type of treatment on wastewater to produce treated wastewater having a first property which is capable of changing;preventing said first property from changing;performing a second type of treatment on treated wastewater; andwherein said first property includes at least one property selected from a group consisting of biochemical oxygen demand ("BOD") level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content and nutrient level. 


2. The method of claim 1, wherein said receiving includes receiving wastewater from a tank that has a top surface and in which anaerobic digestion is carried out. 


3. The method of claim 1, wherein organic content in said wastewater is between about 0.5% and 25% by volume. 


4. The method of claim 1, wherein organic content in said wastewater is between about 0.5% and 15% by volume. 


5. The method of claim 1, wherein said first type of treatment includes removal of solids from said wastewater and said second type of treatment includes removal of organic matter from treated wastewater. 


6. The method of claim 5, wherein said first type of treatment includes:mechanically separating solids from wastewater to remove a first amount of solids from wastewater; andusing a dissolved air flotation ("DAF") device to remove a second amount of solids from wastewater. 


7. The method of claim 6, wherein said first amount of solids represents between about 75% and about 98% of solids removed from wastewater having a solid content that is between about 15% and about 30%. 


8. The method of claim 6, wherein said second amount of solids represents between about 85% and about 95% of solids removed from wastewater having a solid content that is between about 3% and about 6%. 


9. The method of claim 5, wherein said preventing includes removing solids from wastewater in a tank that uses diffused air flow to maintain dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. 


10. The method of claim 9, wherein removing solids include removing between about 85% and about 90% of solids having particle sizes greater than 20 micrometers from said wastewater having a solid content of about 1%. 


11. The method of claim 1, wherein said first type of treatment includes removing organic matter from said wastewater and said second type of treatment includes removing nutrients from said treated wastewater. 


12. The method of claim 11, wherein removing organic matter includes exposing microorganisms in wastewater to oxygen in the presence of biological chips. 


13. The method of claim 12, wherein microorganisms are exposed to oxygen in a surface-area-to-volume ratio that is between about 32 square feet per cubic foot and about 130 square feet per cubic foot. 


14. The method of claim 11, wherein said removal of nutrients includes further treating said treated wastewater in an algal pond in the presence of a spectrum of radiation having wavelengths ranging from about 10.sup.2 nm to about 10.sup.6 nm. 


15. The method of claim 14, wherein further treating said treated wastewater in an algal pond includes aerating wastewater. 


16. The method of claim 14, wherein said algal pond is a high-rate algal pond ("HRAP") providing a surface area that is between about 1000 square feet and about 50,000 square feet for wastewater treatment. 


17. The method of claim 16, wherein said HRAP is maintained at a temperature that is between about 21.degree. C. and about 35.degree. C. 


18. The method of claim 16, wherein said HRAP has a channel length that is between about 200 feet and about 3000 feet. 


19. The method of claim 11, wherein said preventing includes:treating wastewater under anaerobic conditions to produce partially treated wastewater with low BOD; andtreating said partially treated wastewater with low BOD under aerobic conditions. 


20. The method of claim 19, wherein anaerobic conditions are created by removing dead microorganisms from wastewater in a tank that is sealed to maintain dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. 


21. The method of claim 20, wherein aerobic conditions include:removing dead microorganisms from said partially treated wastewater; andcontemporaneously increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


22. The method of claim 1, wherein said first type of treatment includes removing nutrients from wastewater and said second type of treatment includes exposing said treated wastewater to elements of nature. 


23. The method of claim 22, wherein said preventing further includes:removing algae from wastewater; andcontemporaneously increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


24. The method of claim 23, wherein said preventing further includes removing algae from wastewater in a tank using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. 


25. A system of wastewater treatment, comprising:means for receiving wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion;means for performing a first type of treatment on said wastewater to produce treated wastewater having a first property which is capable of changing;means for preventing said first property from changing;means for performing a second type of treatment on said wastewater; andwherein said first property includes at least one property selected from a group consisting of BOD level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content, and nutrient level. 


26. A system for wastewater treatment, comprising:a tank capable of removing solids from wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion;a first sedimentation removal tank ("SRT") designed to remove solids from wastewater using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level; anda reactor containing biological chips and microorganisms configured to remove organic matter present in wastewater depleted of solids. 


27. The system of claim 26, wherein said tank is a solids separator or a feed pond. 


28. The system of claim 26, wherein said tank is a DAF tank that includes:a pored diffuser; anda high-pressure water pump fitted with a venturi tube for drawing in air, for forming air bubbles, and for forcing said air bubbles through said pore diffuser to form micro-air bubbles in wastewater. 


29. The system of claim 26, wherein said reactor includes a blower to facilitate introduction of oxygen into wastewater. 


30. The system of claim 26, wherein said reactor has a surface area of between about 70 square feet and about 210 square feet. 


31. The system of claim 26, wherein said reactor is a rotating biological contractor or a packed bed reactor. 


32. The system of claim 26, further comprising:a second SRT designed to remove dead microorganisms from wastewater and said second SRT capable of being sealed to maintain dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level when dead microorganisms are removed from wastewater; andan algal pond capable of removing nutrients from treated wastewater in presence of algae. 


33. The system of claim 32, further comprising a DAF tank that is capable of connecting to said second SRT at one end and is capable of connecting to said algal pond at another end and said DAF tank is capable of increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater when dead microorganisms are removed from wastewater. 


34. The system of claim 32, wherein said algal pond operates at a temperature that is between about 18.degree. C. and about 35.degree. C. 


35. The system of claim 32, wherein said algal pond is equipped with a spectrum radiation source which operates to provide wavelengths in a range from about 10.sup.2 nm to about 10.sup.6 nm. 


36. The system of claim 32, wherein said source is located at a distance that is between about 1/2 and about 1/3 of a depth of said pond. 


37. The system of claim 32, wherein said algal pond includes a hydraulic pump and a paddle wheel designed for mixing wastewater. 


38. The system of claim 32, wherein said algal pond is an HRAP. 


39. The system of claim 32, further comprising a third SRT designed to remove algae introduced from said algal pond. 


40. The system of claim 39, further comprising a maturation pond being designed to expose wastewater to natural elements of environment before discharge to environment, said maturation pond connected to said third SRT. 


41. A method of wastewater treatment, comprising:using anaerobic treatment for a first time to process wastewater and produce a partially treated wastewater;removing solid content from said partially treated wastewater to produce solids-depleted wastewater; andusing anaerobic treatment for a second time to process solids-depleted wastewater and produce treated wastewater. 


42. The method of claim 41, wherein said anaerobic treatment for said first time includes carrying out anaerobic digestion in a first tank that has a top surface. 


43. The method of claim 41, wherein removing solid content from wastewater includes at least one of:mechanically separating solids from wastewater to remove a first amount of solids from wastewater; andusing a DAF tank to remove a second amount of solids from wastewater. 


44. The method of claim 43, wherein said removing solid content includes using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. 


45. The method of claim 41, further comprising subjecting wastewater to aerobic digestion by exposing microorganisms in wastewater to oxygen in the presence of biological chips. 


46. The method of claim 41, wherein said using anaerobic treatment for said second time includes:treating wastewater under anaerobic conditions to produce partially treated wastewater with low BOD; andtreating said partially treated wastewater with low BOD under aerobic conditions. 


47. The method of claim 46, wherein in said treating wastewater, anaerobic conditions are created by sealing the tank and allowing depletion of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


48. The method of claim 46, wherein in said treating said partially treated wastewater, aerobic conditions include:removing dead microorganisms from said partially treated wastewater; andcontemporaneously increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


49. A system for wastewater treatment, comprising:a first tank designed for treating wastewater by anaerobic digestion to produce a partially treated wastewater;a solids-removal subassembly capable of removing solids from said partially treated wastewater to produce solids-depleted wastewater; anda second tank configured to treat solids-depleted wastewater by anaerobic digestion to produce treated wastewater. 


50. The system of claim 49, wherein said second tank contains biological chips and microorganisms to treat solids-depleted wastewater by aerobic digestion and to remove organic matter from said solids-depleted wastewater. 


51. The system of claim 49, wherein said solids-removal subassembly includes at least one of:a solids separator;a DAF tank which includes:a pored diffuser;a high-pressure water pump fitted with a venturi tube for drawing in air, for forming air bubbles and for forcing said air bubbles through said pore diffuser to form micro-air bubbles in wastewater; anda first SRT designed to remove solids from wastewater using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. 


52. The system of claim 51, wherein the SRT is sealed.
Description:
RELATED CASE 


[0001]This is a continuation in-part application of a co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/173,751, filed on Jul. 15, 2008. 


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 


[0002]The present invention relates generally to wastewater treatment. More particularly, the present invention relates to active treatment systems and methods, which effectively and rapidly remove contaminants from wastewater after anaerobic digestion. 


[0003]Conventional wastewater treatment begins with pretreatment of wastewater, which is carried out in different stages. In an initial stage, wastewater undergoes hydrolysis to convert particulate matter to soluble compounds. These soluble compounds are degraded in a next stage. By way of example, fermentation degrades sugars and fatty acids present in wastewater to produce acetate, hydrogen, and oxygen. Ultimately the degraded compounds are converted to methane gas by typically using methanogenic organisms. 


[0004]After pretreatment concludes, certain conventional methods may rely on passive techniques, which rely upon nothing more than gravity, to remove suspended solids from wastewater. Typically, a primary sedimentation vault, large enough to store 30 million gallons of water, is employed to carry out sedimentation. Sedimentation is a slow process where relatively heavy solids in wastewater are allowed to settle, such that they sink to the bottom of the vault and produce a discrete solid phase containing heavy solids and a discrete liquid or water phase. As a result, these type solids easily separate from the liquid phase of wastewater. 


[0005]After heavy solids are removed, wastewater is transported into another large tank to remove organic matter. In this large tank, microorganisms adhere to the thick walls and bottom layer of the tank and thrive under appropriate light, temperature, and surface area in the tank. These microorganisms grow in large enough numbers and consume most of the oxygen and food (i.e., organic matter) present in wastewater. In the absence of conditions necessary to sustain, microorganisms eventually die, leaving behind wastewater that is enriched with nitrogen and phosphorous. Conventional methods discharge this wastewater to the soil, ponds, or tanks depending on the amount of other remaining contaminants. 


[0006]Unfortunately, conventional wastewater treatment suffers from several drawbacks. For example, not only is the reliance on sedimentation for removal of solids a long and drawn out process, but it is also very expensive. Specifically, infrastructure, such as a large tank, pipes, and pumps, represents significant capital costs. 


[0007]As another example, the process of removing organic matter, like the process of solid removal, is also passive and expensive as it is carried out over long periods of time in a large tank. As yet another example, conventional treatment methods do not offer provisions for effective removal of dead microorganisms and residual nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater. Although processes like reverse osmosis or ion exchange are known to remove nitrogen and phosphorous, they are not deemed commercially viable and are therefore not integrated into conventional wastewater treatment methods. 


[0008]The above-mentioned drawbacks also apply to anaerobic digestion, an important step in treatment of wastewater. Conventional wastewater treatment does not provide for active treatment of wastewater enriched with organic material that results from anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is a simple process that can greatly reduce the amount of organic matter that might otherwise be destined to be landfilled or burnt in an incinerator. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion, including biodegradable waste materials such as waste paper, grass clippings, leftover food, sewage, and animal waste. 


[0009]What is therefore needed are systems and methods of wastewater treatment that more effectively and rapidly treat wastewater using anaerobic digestion as an initial step. 


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 


[0010]In view of the foregoing, this invention provides systems and methods for wastewater treatment that more effectively and rapidly treat wastewater using anaerobic digestion as an initial step. 


[0011]Wastewater typically contains, among other constituents, solids including total suspended solids, inorganic and organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous, and living organisms. Removal of these constituents in a commercially viable manner poses unique challenges, which are not addressed by conventional treatment methods that primarily rely on gravity and time. Against this backdrop, the present invention adopts an active approach to wastewater treatment--i.e., to effectively and rapidly treat wastewater in a commercially viable manner. Specifically, the present invention provides systems and methods to effectively and rapidly remove different types of contaminants from wastewater, beginning with a process of anaerobic digestion, by primarily relying on inventive subsystems and steps, and not merely gravity and time. 


[0012]The approach adopted by the present invention recognizes, among other things, that the concept of biochemical oxygen demand ("BOD") drives various steps of wastewater treatment. BOD is a well known parameter which indicates the amount of oxygen needed to biologically stabilize the organic matter present. According to preferred embodiments of the present invention, efforts to effectively control BOD levels in various stages of wastewater treatment rely upon more than gravity and time. This allows the present invention to offer active treatment of wastewater, as opposed to prior art's passive treatment, which relies only upon gravity and time. 


[0013]Organic matter commonly present in wastewater uses oxygen for various reasons and as a result, depletes soluble oxygen. A requisite high level of dissolved oxygen, however, is desirable during certain stages of treatment to grow microorganisms to consume organic matter present in wastewater treatment. Conventional methods only in a single discrete step grow microorganisms by introducing oxygen to replenish the depleted levels of oxygen in wastewater. This step provides oxygen to initially promote growth of naturally occurring microorganisms to large numbers so that they consume almost all of the organic matter and oxygen in wastewater. Conventional methods introduce oxygen by implementing passive means, i.e., requiring a large space-consuming tank to expose a greater surface area to the atmosphere for long periods of time. 


[0014]The present invention recognizes the need to maximize use of high-pressure air diffusion in multiple steps to actively increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in wastewater as well as creating an active environment for naturally occurring and custom introduced bacteria to grow by increasing the surface-area-to-volume ratio in specific reactors. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, this process of actively introducing oxygen and increasing surface-area-to-volume ratio begins early, during a solids-removal stage, and well before microorganisms growth is encouraged in conventional methods. 


[0015]When sufficient amount of microorganisms die in an oxygen- and nutrient-poor environment, dead organisms undergo decay, raising levels of ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite through a process known as "nitrification." Conventional treatment discharges the wastewater with a high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorous to the environment. Reverse osmosis and ion exchange are known to remove nitrogen and phosphorous, but are not deemed commercially viable and are therefore not integrated into conventional wastewater treatment methods. 


[0016]Discharge of nutrient-rich effluent is known to be injurious to life. Nitrates are carcinogenic and direct discharge of wastewater with nitrates can contaminate drinking water aquifers. The present invention recognizes this and prevents such contamination by effectively removing nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater before discharge. 


[0017]Preferred embodiments of the present invention effectively treat wastewater by driving down BOD, maintaining the level of dissolved oxygen, lowering the solid content, and controlling the nutrient level in wastewater at various stages. By way of example, in one stage, the present invention drives down BOD and solid content in wastewater by actively focusing on the removal of BOD-contributing solids. 


[0018]As another example, during the process of removing solids, the present invention also focuses on improving the growth regime for naturally occurring and genetically engineered bacteria. Preferred embodiments of the present invention use high-pressure air diffusion to substantially maintain or increase the level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. As a result, according to preferred embodiments of the present invention, microorganism growth is encouraged well before they are employed to remove organic matter. 


[0019]As yet another example, directly after removal of organic matter by microorganism consumption, preferred embodiments treat wastewater by creating anaerobic conditions to achieve complete microorganism die off and lower solid content or reduce BOD in wastewater. Next, the wastewater is treated to remove solids and further reduce BOD in an aerobic environment that replenishes the dissolved oxygen levels. 


[0020]As yet another example, preferred embodiments of the present invention while actively removing BOD-contributing solids, dead microorganisms, nutrients, algae, and other solids, maintain the level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater to prevent an increase of BOD and solid content by reversible reaction. It is important to note that prior art fails to recognize drawbacks of reversible reactions that increase BOD, let alone offer provisions to prevent increase of BOD. 


[0021]As yet another example, preferred embodiments of the present invention drive down the nutrients in wastewater by actively focusing on the removal of all forms of nitrogen and phosphates by effectively cultivating specific biological processes that utilize nutrients available for their own growth. The invention further reduces the nutrient load by actively removing any biological matter remaining in the effluent. 


[0022]In one aspect, the present invention provides a process of wastewater treatment. The method of wastewater treatment includes: (i) receiving wastewater after anaerobic digestion; (ii) performing a first type of treatment on wastewater to produce wastewater having a first property which is capable of changing; (iii) preventing the first property from changing; and (iv) performing a second type of treatment on wastewater; and wherein the first property includes at least one property selected from a group consisting of BOD level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content, and nutrient level. 


[0023]The step of receiving preferably includes receiving wastewater from a tank that has a top surface and in which anaerobic digestion is carried out. In one embodiment of the present invention, the percent of organic content in said wastewater is between about 0.5% and about 25%. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the percent organic content in said wastewater is between about 0.5% and about 15%. 


[0024]In one embodiment of the present invention, the first type of treatment includes removal of solids and the second type of treatment includes removal of organic matter. In this embodiment, removal of solids includes: (i) mechanically separating solids from wastewater to remove a first amount of solids from wastewater; and (ii) flowing dissolved air to remove a second amount of solids from wastewater. The first amount of solids may represent between about 75% and about 98% of solids removed from wastewater, which has a solid content that may be between about 15% and about 30%. The second amount of solids may represent between about 85% and about 95% of solids removed from wastewater, which has a solid content that may be between about 3% and about 6%. 


[0025]In one embodiment of the present invention, the step of preventing includes removing solids from wastewater in a tank that uses diffused air flow to maintain dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. Maintaining dissolved oxygen substantially at constant level means that the difference between level of dissolved oxygen in the influent and the effluent stream does not exceed more than about 5%. The step of removing may further include removing solids using screens that separate certain particle sizes from wastewater. The step of removing solids includes removing between about 85% and about 90% of solids having particle sizes greater than about 20 micrometers from wastewater, which has a solid content of about 1%. 


[0026]In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, the first type of treatment includes removing organic matter from wastewater and the second type of treatment includes removing nutrients from wastewater. In this embodiment, the step of removing organic matter includes exposing microorganisms in wastewater to oxygen in the presence of biological chips. Microorganisms may be exposed to oxygen in a surface-area-to-volume ratio that is between about 32 square feet per cubic foot and about 130 square feet per cubic foot. The step of removal of nutrients, in this embodiment, includes treating wastewater in an algal pond in the presence of a spectrum of radiation having wavelengths ranging from about 10.sup.2 nm to about 10.sup.6 nm. The step of treating wastewater in an algal pond may include aerating wastewater. The algal pond is preferably a high-rate algal pond ("HRAP") providing a surface area that is between about 1000 square feet and about 50,000 square feet for wastewater treatment. The HRAP may be maintained at a temperature that is between about 21.degree. C. and about 35.degree. C. The HRAP may have a channel length that is between about 200 feet and about 3000 feet. A serpentine path inside the HRAP may define the channel. 


[0027]The step of preventing may include: (i) treating wastewater under anaerobic conditions to produce partially treated wastewater with low BOD; and (ii) treating partially treated wastewater with low BOD under aerobic conditions. The aerobic conditions preferably include: (i) removing dead microorganisms from partially treated wastewater; and (ii) contemporaneously increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, anaerobic conditions are created by sealing the tank and allowing depletion of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


[0028]In other alternative embodiments of the present invention, the first type of treatment includes removing nutrients from wastewater and the second type of treatment includes exposing treated wastewater to elements of nature. In this embodiment, the step of preventing further includes: removing algae from wastewater; and contemporaneously increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. The step of preventing further includes removing algae from wastewater in a tank that includes screens to separate solids from wastewater and introducing air bubbles in wastewater to maintain dissolved oxygen at a substantially constant level. 


[0029]In another aspect, the present invention provides a system for wastewater treatment. The system includes: (i) means for receiving wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion; (ii) means for performing a first type of treatment on wastewater to produce treated wastewater having a first property which is capable of changing; (iii) means for preventing the first property from changing; (iv) means for performing a second type of treatment on treated wastewater; and wherein said first property includes at least one property selected from a group consisting of BOD level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content, and nutrient level. 


[0030]In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a system for wastewater treatment. The system includes: (i) a tank for removing solids from wastewater; (ii) a first sedimentation removal tank ("SRT") designed to remove solids from wastewater and the first SRT capable of removing solids using a screen and capable of introducing air bubbles to maintain dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level when solids are removed from wastewater; and (iii) a reactor containing biological chips and microorganisms to remove organic matter present in water. The tank may be a solids separator or a feed pond. 


[0031]The system may further include a dissolved air flotation ("DAF") tank. DAF tank preferably includes: (i) a pored diffuser; and (ii) a high-pressure water pump fitted with a venturi tube for drawing in air for forming air bubbles and for forcing air bubbles through the pore diffuser to form micro-air bubbles in wastewater. The reactor may include a blower to facilitate introduction of oxygen into wastewater. The reactor preferably has a surface area of between about 70 square feet and about 210 square feet. The reactor may be a rotating biological contractors or a packed-bed reactor. 


[0032]The system may further include: (i) a second SRT for removing dead microorganisms from wastewater and the second SRT capable of being sealed to maintain dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level when dead microorganisms are removed from wastewater; and (ii) an algal pond capable of removing nutrients from treated wastewater in presence of algae. 


[0033]The algal pond preferably operates at a temperature that is between about 18.degree. C. and about 35.degree. C. The algal pond may be equipped with a spectrum radiation source which operates to provide wavelengths in a range from about 10.sup.2 nm to about 10.sup.6 nm. The source may be located at a distance that is between about 1/2 and about 1/3 of a depth of the pond. The algal pond may include a hydraulic pump and a paddle wheel designed for mixing wastewater. The algal pond may be an HRAP. The system may further still include a DAF tank that is connected to the second SRT at one end and is connected to the algal pond at another end and the DAF tank is capable of increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater when removing dead microorganisms from wastewater. 


[0034]The system may further still include a third SRT designed to remove algae introduced from the algal pond. In this embodiment, the inventive system further includes a maturation pond being designed to expose wastewater to natural elements of environment before discharging wastewater to environment. The maturation pond is preferably connected to the third SRT. 


[0035]In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method for wastewater treatment. The method includes: (i) using anaerobic digestion for a first time to process wastewater and produce a partially treated wastewater; (ii) removing solid content from said partially treated wastewater to produce solids-depleted wastewater; and (iii) using anaerobic digestion for a second time to process solids-depleted wastewater and produce treated wastewater. Using anaerobic digestion for a first time preferably includes carrying out anaerobic digestion in a tank that has a top surface. 


[0036]Removing solid content from wastewater preferably includes the steps of: (i) mechanically separating solids from wastewater to remove a first amount of solids from wastewater; and (ii) using a DAF tank to remove a second amount of solids from wastewater. Removing solid content may further include using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. The system may further still include removing solid content including using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. 


[0037]Using anaerobic digestion for a second time preferably includes: (i) treating wastewater under anaerobic conditions to produce partially treated wastewater with low BOD; and (ii) treating said partially treated wastewater with low BOD under aerobic conditions. In treating wastewater, anaerobic conditions are preferably created by sealing a tank and depleting dissolved oxygen in wastewater. In treating partially treated wastewater, aerobic conditions are preferably created by: (i) removing dead microorganisms from said partially treated wastewater; and (ii) contemporaneously increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


[0038]In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a system for wastewater treatment. The system includes: (i) a first tank for treating wastewater by anaerobic digestion to produce a partially treated wastewater; (ii) a solids-removal subassembly for removing solids from the partially treated wastewater to produce solids-depleted wastewater; and (iii) a second tank for treating solids-depleted wastewater by anaerobic digestion to produce treated wastewater. The second tank may contain biological chips and microorganisms to treat solids-depleted wastewater by aerobic digestion and to remove organic matter from solids-depleted wastewater. The solids-removal subassembly preferably includes at least one of: (i) a solids separator; (ii) a DAF tank, which includes: (a) a pored diffuser; and (b) a high-pressure water pump fitted with a venturi tube for drawing in air, for forming air bubbles and for forcing said air bubbles through said pore diffuser to form micro-air bubbles in wastewater; and (c) a first SRT designed to remove solids from wastewater using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in wastewater at a substantially constant level. In preferred embodiments, the SRT may be sealed. 


[0039]In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method of wastewater treatment. The method includes: (1) receiving wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion; (2) performing a first type of treatment on wastewater to produce treated wastewater having a first property which is capable of changing; (3) preventing the first property from changing; (4) performing a second type of treatment on the treated wastewater; and (4) wherein the first property includes at least one property selected from a group consisting of biochemical oxygen demand ("BOD") level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content, and nutrient level. 


[0040]In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a system for wastewater treatment. The system includes: (1) a tank capable of removing solids from wastewater produced after anaerobic digestion; (2) a first SRT designed to remove solids from wastewater using diffused air flow which maintains dissolved oxygen in the wastewater at a substantially constant level; and (3) a reactor containing biological chips and microorganisms configured to remove organic matter present in wastewater depleted of solids. 


[0041]In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method of wastewater treatment. The method includes: (1) using anaerobic treatment for a first time to process wastewater and produce a partially treated wastewater; (2) removing solid content from said partially treated wastewater to produce solids-depleted wastewater; and (3) using anaerobic treatment for a second time to process said solids-depleted wastewater and produce treated wastewater. 


[0042]The construction and method of operation of the invention, however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof will be best understood from the following descriptions of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying figures. 


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 


[0043]FIG. 1 shows a system for wastewater treatment, according to one embodiment of the present invention. 


[0044]FIG. 2 shows details of a biological chip reactor design, according to one embodiment of the present invention, used in the system of FIG. 1. 


[0045]FIG. 3 shows an inventive algal pond used in the system of FIG. 1. 


[0046]FIG. 4 shows a perspective view of the algal pond of FIG. 3. 


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 


[0047]In the following description numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without limitation to some or all of these specific details. In other instances, well known process steps have not been described in detail in order to not unnecessarily obscure the invention. 


[0048]FIG. 1 shows a system design 100, according to one embodiment of the present invention, for active treatment of wastewater. System 100 includes an anaerobic tank 102, which provides wastewater that has undergone anaerobic digestion to a series of active devices for removal of solid waste. These active devices include a solids separator 104, a DAF tank 106, and a first SRT 108, each of which facilitates removal of solid contaminants of different sizes and type. The relatively solid-free wastewater is then transported to a series of biological chip reactors ("BCR") 110 and 112 to remove organic matter. For removal of solid sludge, if necessary, an aerobic sludge digester tank 114 is provided. Wastewater containing dead microorganisms from either BCR 112 or from aerobic sludge digester 114, if one is employed, is sent to a second SRT 116 for removal of solids which include for the most part dead microorganisms. For further removal of dead organisms, the wastewater is treated in DAF tank 106 and from there sent to an HRAP 118. HRAP 118 is provided to remove nutrients, such as nitrates, nitrites, and phosphorous, from the wastewater. Next, wastewater is passed again through DAF 106 and through a third SRT 120 to specifically remove algae introduced into wastewater from HRAP 118. DAF 106 also serves to increase level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. The nutrient-and-algae-depleted wastewater is optionally provided to a maturation pond 122 before discharging to the environment. In maturation pond 122, residual algae not removed in DAF 106 and SRT 120 is removed and treated wastewater is exposed to elements of the natural environment. 


[0049]System 100 also includes various lines or connections between the different tanks to transport residual solids that are removed from the wastewater. According to FIG. 1, one such line 124 is provided between DAF tank 106 and anaerobic tank 102 to transport those solids which are not removed after treatment in DAF tank 106 back to a subsystem for drying and pelletizing. Another line 127 is also provided to transport solids, which typically include dead microorganisms, from aerobic sludge digester 114 to a subsystem designed for drying and pelletizing. The resulting pellets are used for fertilizer. According to the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, residual solids are not only transported from aerobic sludge digester 114, but are also transported to digester 114. Specifically, a line 128 is provided to transport residual solids from DAF tank 106 back to aerobic sludge digester 114. 


[0050]Solids separator 104 comes equipped with a screen designed to remove solids that do not settle out in anaerobic tank 102 or that are pulled into system 100 by the inlet pumps (not shown to simplify illustration of FIG. 1). Solids in wastewater that pass through the screen are pressed between at least two belts, each of which is supported by turning rollers positioned throughout the press. The belts are permeable and allow wastewater to pass through, holding back heavy solids. Moving action of the belt and the splashing of wastewater as it permeates the belt also serves to introduce oxygen into wastewater. The resulting increased level of dissolved oxygen encourages growth of microorganisms, which remove organic matter in a subsequent step. 


[0051]Depending on the screen size, solids separator 104 removes between about 75% and about 98% of solids removed from wastewater, which at this stage of treatment typically has a solid content that is between about 15% and about 30%. Eliminating these solids represents a significant amount of BOD removal. Solids removed by the press may be composted or otherwise removed from the premises for disposal. Solids separator 104 can be made from any rigid material, but is preferably made from stainless steel. Similarly, a range of suitable dimensions work well. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, system 100 uses a solids separator commercially available from Press Technologies of Wheat Ridge, Colo. 


[0052]DAF 106 captures small particulate matter that is not removed by solids separator 104. To effect solid separation from wastewater, DAF, in accordance with one embodiment of the claimed invention, uses a pored diffuser and a high-pressure pump that is preferably fitted with a venturi tube and is designed to introduce air bubbles inside wastewater. The pump draws in air, forcing air bubbles through the pored diffuser to form micro-air bubbles. The pored diffuser may be made from stone. Air is forced through the pored diffuser to produce a diffused air flow, preferably of about 40 cubic feet per minute. Air bubbles in their upward motion accumulate on the particulate matter and carry with them particulate matter to the top, where they are removed via skimmers. 


[0053]Air bubbles inside DAF provide a large surface area to effectively dissolve oxygen and thereby raise the level of soluble oxygen in wastewater. As a result, air bubbles not only facilitate removal of solids, but also increase the level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater to promote microorganism growth for subsequent removal of organic matter. Thus, the present invention promotes conditions for effective removal of organic matter in early stages and well before such removal is the primary focus during subsequent treatment. 


[0054]In preferred embodiments of the present invention, DAF tank is commercially available from Martint Environmental of Lexington, S.C. By way of example, a DAF tank used in the present invention is about 7 feet long, 3.5 feet wide, and 5 feet high. Hydraulic residence time in a DAF tank may be between about 1 and about 3 hours. Hydraulic residence time refers to the amount of time it takes for a single molecule of water to pass through the unit from the time it enters a tank, for example, to the time it leaves. DAF tank removes between about 85% and about 95% of the solids removed from wastewater, which at this point has a solid content that is between about 3% and about 6%. 


[0055]Unlike conventional solid sedimentation in the prior art, the present invention does not require solids to fully settle to the bottom of the SRT to be trapped there. SRT 108 effects separation of residual solids by actively increasing the hydraulic flow path and providing physical impediments to particles for permanently trapping them. Hydraulic flow path refers to a path that is traversed by wastewater. An increase in the hydraulic flow path allows for separating a greater amount of solids from wastewater. 


[0056]SRT 108 is preferably large enough such that it takes wastewater being pumped in at 40 gallons per minute 100 minutes to fill it. U.S. Pat. No. 6,899,808, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes, describes preferred embodiments of the SRT used in the present invention. Surface area inside SRT 108 is preferably between about 160 square feet and about 320 square feet. SRT removes between about 85% and about 90% of solids having particle sizes greater than 20 micrometers from wastewater, which at this point has a solid content of about 1%. During the solid removal process, SRT 108 effects diffused air flow to raise level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater and to clean the screens provided for solid removal. By reducing BOD level and solid content and raising level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater, the present invention promotes conditions for removal of organic matter in early stages and well before such removal is the primary focus during subsequent treatment. 


[0057]FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a BCR 200 (e.g., BCRs 110 and 112), in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. BCR 200 includes a tank 202, which contains biological chips 214 and has an inlet 208 for providing wastewater (not shown to simplify illustration) for treatment. Tank 202 is equipped with a blower 204 which introduces air inside wastewater. Waste solids in wastewater form a layer 212 and are removed by a pump 210. Biological chips 214 and blower 204 serve to provide wastewater with very high dissolved oxygen concentration and a high surface-area-to-volume ratio to aid the metabolic growth rates of microorganisms (not shown in FIG. 2 to simplify illustration). 


[0058]BCR is an aerobic treatment system that utilizes microorganisms attached to biologic chips to form a biological film or slime layer (typically ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm thick). Microorganisms in the outer part of slime layer degrade the organic material in wastewater. However, as the slime layer thickens, oxygen is unable to penetrate the biological chips and anaerobic organisms develop. Eventually the microorganisms near the surface lose their ability to cling to the biological chips, and a portion of the slime layer falls off. 


[0059]In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, microorganisms inside a BCR include aerobic, anaerobic and facultative bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. BCR 110 is preferably designed to contain many different types of microorganisms, each of which is ideally suited to remove at least one type of organic matter from wastewater. By way of example, BCR 110 uses heterotrophic bacteria (e.g., Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Cirtomonas, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Zoogloea) for removal of BOD. Any matter containing a carbon molecule normally present in wastewater generated from and including human waste, food waste, animal waste, and plant waste, contributes to BOD. 


[0060]Blower 204 is effective in providing oxygen to microorganisms in wastewater. Size of bubbles formed in wastewater from pumping air and the amount of air pumped dictates the amount of oxygen dissolved in wastewater. Those skilled in the art will recognize that small bubbles can be twice as efficient at transferring oxygen because they provide greater surface area of air per mass of air. Bubbles also mix wastewater inside the BCR to ensure that nutrients in wastewater are in constant contact with the bacteria that consumes them. 


[0061]The presence of biological chips provides a high surface area inside the reactor to which the microorganisms may affix. By way of example, the ratio of surface area inside the BCR to volume of BCR is between about 32 square feet per cubic foot and about 130 square feet per cubic foot. Preferably, however, the ratio of surface area inside the BCR to volume of BCR is about 73.5 square feet per cubic feet. High surface area combined with high oxygen concentration aids the metabolic rates of microorganisms. The affixed microorganisms quickly remove all available food in the form of organic particulate matter (which contributes to BOD) from the reactor and leave a situation of high metabolic rates and low amounts of food (i.e., there is a low ratio of food to microorganism). Over a period of time, most solids in the reactors continue to be active and remove more BOD-contributing solids from the influent water. Eventually, as more and more of the food is depleted inside the reactor, the microorganisms die from starvation. 


[0062]BCR 112 is preferably designed to contain at least one type of microorganism which removes at least one type of organic matter that is particularly difficult to remove from the wastewater in BCR 110 or requires additional processing time, i.e., above and beyond the processing time in BCR 110. According to the present invention, it is also possible to have additional BCRs, in addition to BCRs 110 and 112, to facilitate effective organic matter removal. By way of example, an initial step of nitrification is carried out in BCR 112 by autotropic bacteria Nitrosomonas, which converts ammonia to nitrite, despite the fact that some nitrifying bacteria exists in BCR 110. A third BCR (not shown in FIG. 1 to simplify illustration) may be used for a subsequent step of nitrification using autotropic bacteria Nitrobacter. 


[0063]In preferred embodiments of the present invention, BCRs 110 and 112 are about 7 feet long, 10.5 feet wide, and 8 inches in height. Temperature inside BCRs are preferably between about 15.degree. C. and about 32.degree. C., and the hydraulic residence time is preferably about 8 hours. According to one embodiment of the present invention, BCRs are about 40% filled with small biorings, have 133 cubic feet per minute of diffused air flowing through it during operation, and use 6 ounces of defoaming agent per day. In cold climates, where heat dissipation is relatively high, it is preferable to keep substrate levels high to carry out nitrification effectively. The term "high substrate levels" means keeping a certain level of biological matter (sludge) inside the BCR to maintain its thermal mass and avoid wide temperature swings inside the BCR and/or also means keeping the bacteria count high to accommodate the greater die-off rate when temperatures drop. 


[0064]The present invention's use of a BCR, individually or in combination with other BCRs, represents an active process because it provides air and constantly places bacteria in contact with nutrients through circulation of wastewater to effectively encourage nutrient uptake. Furthermore, the surface area inside the BCR is also optimized for removal of organic waste. 


[0065]Aerobic sludge digester 114 is one type of BCR, except that it is designed to remove sludge. In other words, digester 114 contains microorganisms which are known to consume, and therefore remove, sludge. 


[0066]Although the BCRs and aerobic sludge digesters remove organic matter and lower BOD, they leave a wastewater rich with nitrates from the endogenous decay of microorganisms that have run out of food sources. To this end, previously described DAF 106 and a second SRT, shown as SRT 116 in FIG. 1, are used to remove dead microorganisms. To remove dead microorganisms, DAF 106 is provided with another chamber, separate from the chamber which is used to remove from wastewater solids that are not dead microorganisms. HRAP 118 is used in system 100 to remove nutrients from wastewater. 

[0067]FIG. 3 shows HRAP 300, according to one preferred embodiment of the present invention. HRAP 300 includes a tank 302 containing algae 308. A spectrum of radiation 306 operates at wavelengths that range from about 10.sup.2 nm and 10.sup.6 nm. This spectrum of radiation is preferably disposed at a location that is between about 1/3 and about 1/2 the depth of HRAP 300. At the bottom of tank 302, a solid waste layer 304 accumulates which may ultimately be removed. A hydraulic pump and a paddle (both not shown to simplify illustration) are preferably provided in HRAP 300 for stiffing and aeration of wastewater. Aeration and stirring facilitates driving up the dissolved oxygen level in wastewater to promote algae growth. Tank 302 is preferably maintained at a temperature that is between about 21.degree. C. and 35.degree. C. 


[0068]FIG. 4 shows a perspective view of HRAP 300, in accordance with one preferred embodiment of the present invention. Inside HRAP 300, wastewater is preferably guided through a channel, which allows the water to traverse back and forth along a length of tank 302. The channel carves out a hydraulic path for wastewater and is preferably serpentine in shape. 

[0069]HRAP can have any dimensions that effectively remove nutrients from wastewater. The present invention recognizes, however, that nutrient load and flow rate of wastewater drive HRAP dimensions. By way of example, HRAP has a length of about 24 feet, a width of about 77 feet, and a height of about 4 feet. HRAP preferably provides a surface area that is between about 1000 square feet and about 50,000 square feet and, more preferably, about 1848 square feet for wastewater treatment. The channel length is preferably between about 200 feet and about 3000 feet. Inside the channel of HRAP, wastewater moves at a velocity of about 10 inches per second and has a residence time of about 72 hours. 


[0070]HRAP primarily uses algae to remove nitrates and phosphates from wastewater. Growth rate of algae is dictated by available oxygen, temperature, light, and nutrients. Conventional algal ponds are very shallow because they facilitate introduction of oxygen and penetration of light to promote algae growth. Unfortunately, for processing relatively large volumes of wastewater, conventional algal ponds are very large, significant bodies, i.e., they are typically measured in hectares. 


[0071]The present invention preferably uses an HRAP, which is deeper and not so spread out. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, it both aerates and stirs wastewater to effectively introduce oxygen. Furthermore, a radiation source inside the HRAP effectively facilitates light penetration through to greater depths of wastewater. As a result, HRAPs according to the present invention can occupy as little as 160 square meters for 120 cubic meters per day flow systems. 


[0072]At a minimum, conventional wastewater treatment processes fail to recognize that: (i) decomposition of organic matter depletes soluble oxygen in wastewater constantly during various treatment steps; (ii) there is a need to substantially maintain the level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater at various stages is important for effective treatment; and (iii) failure to substantially maintain level of dissolved oxygen and lower solid content through each stage of wastewater treatment causes a reversible reaction which reverses the treatment accomplished in previous treatment steps. The failure to recognize these is exacerbated when wastewater treatment includes anaerobic digestion to produce high organic content. 

[0073]To this end, various steps in preferred embodiments of the present invention recognize the need to drive down BOD, solid content, and nutrient level, and to maintain or increase levels of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, wastewater undergoes different types of treatment. By way of example, wastewater treatment begins when wastewater is subjected to anaerobic digestion in a tank. Next, BOD-creating solids are removed first. Then, the organic matter is consumed by bacteria. Next, nutrients present in wastewater are removed. After performing a first type of treatment, however, the present invention recognizes the need to stabilize the wastewater before advancing it to a second type of treatment. Stabilizing involves preventing a meaningful change in certain important properties of wastewater, e.g., BOD level, dissolved oxygen level, solid content, and nutrient level, which are susceptible to changing to undesired values by a reversible reaction. Specifically, by lowering BOD levels and solid content and increasing or substantially maintaining dissolved oxygen levels in wastewater throughout the various stages, the present invention effectively transitions from one treatment type to another, without suffering from drawbacks of a reversible reaction. 


[0074]In accordance with one embodiment, the inventive process using system 100 of FIG. 1 may begin when a treatment system 100 receives wastewater for treatment directly from an anaerobic tank (e.g., anaerobic tank 102 of FIG. 1). Inside anaerobic tank 102, complex organic material is broken down into smaller constituent organic material by anaerobic bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic condition include breaking down the organic material at a temperature that is between about 35.degree. C. and about 70.degree. C., and is preferably between about 35.degree. C. and about 60.degree. C. The pressure under these conditions may be about 1 atmosphere and the volume is a value that is between about 100 cubic meters and about 50,000 cubic meters. The wastewater is then immediately advanced for solid removal as one type of treatment. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, solid removal is carried out methodically in different steps. It is noteworthy that in this embodiment, not only are solids removed at different steps, but the inventive process is designed to substantially maintain the level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater during these steps to avoid a reversible reaction. 


[0075]Solid removal preferably begins with removal of relatively large solids from wastewater using a mechanical technique. By way of example, a solids separator such as the one shown in FIG. 1 is preferably used for pressing wastewater containing solids because it also introduces air into the wastewater during the pressing action. As a result, pressing not only removes large solids from wastewater but also maintains the level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. At this early stage of solid removal, an aerobic process ensures a natural biological degradation and purification process in which bacteria that thrive in oxygen-rich environment break down and digest the organic matter. Maintaining oxygen levels during solid removal ensures that such bacteria do not die off and that level of BOD-contributing solids and solid content in wastewater does not increase. Undesired increase in BOD-contributing solids at this stage would defeat the ultimate purpose of removing the BOD-contributing solids in this step. In other words, during a single treatment step, lowering solid content, lowering BOD level, and substantially maintaining or increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater prevents a reversible reaction that increases BOD and solid content, and/or lowers level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. 


[0076]After removing large solids, preferred embodiments of the present invention focus on the removal of medium-sized particles using small air bubbles. In this treatment step, medium-sized solids are carried by an upward motion of air bubbles and removed as explained previously. As a result, bubbles remove BOD-contributing solids, lower solid content, and introduce oxygen simultaneously to substantially maintain or increase a level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. The advantages of lowering BOD and solid content, and at the same time substantially maintaining or increasing a level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater realized in the previous step, are also realized in this step. 

[0077]For removal of finer solids from wastewater, the inventive process in a preferred embodiment moves to a tank, such as SRT 108 as shown in FIG. 1. This tank also stabilizes the wastewater before removal of organic matter commences. Specifically, the tank is designed to remove fine solid particles using a screen when diffused air flow is used inside the tank. Such air flow provides cleaning action to remove the solid build up on the screen and introduces oxygen into wastewater. The advantages of lowering BOD and solid content in wastewater, and at the same time substantially maintaining or increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater realized in the previous steps, are also realized in this step. 

[0078]Next, the inventive process preferably moves to removal of organic matter as another type of treatment. In this stage of treatment, preferably in a BCR, such as the one shown in FIG. 1, microorganisms in the presence of biological chips consume organic matter. This consumption is enhanced by the presence of a blower which introduces oxygen into wastewater, increasing level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. With removal of organic matter, wastewater has lower BOD level and solid content and increased level of dissolved oxygen. Microorganisms after consuming a substantial amount of organic material, however, die off and increase both BOD level and solid content. If the dead microorganisms are not timely removed, level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater will drop and a reversible reaction will increase BOD level and solid content in wastewater. 


[0079]As a result, in the next treatment step, the present invention offers provisions to remove dead microorganisms from wastewater. To this end, preferably first anaerobic treatment and then an aerobic treatment is used. It is noteworthy that in preferred embodiments of the present invention, wastewater at this stage is subjected to anaerobic digestion for a second time. In the anaerobic treatment at this stage, preferably an SRT is sealed off to make sure that all aerobic microorganisms die off. At the same time, using screens inside the SRT, dead microorganisms are removed using screens inside the SRT. This lowers both BOD level and solid content in wastewater. But, before wastewater can advance to the next stage, the present invention realizes that level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater should increase. 


[0080]In the next step, aerobic treatment is preferably carried out using a DAF tank such as the one shown in FIG. 1. Diffused air flow inside the DAF tank raises level of dissolved oxygen and removes residual solids. Now, wastewater having lower BOD level and solid content and higher level of dissolved oxygen is ready for the next stage of treatment. 


[0081]In the next stage, wastewater is treated in algal pond, preferably in an HRAP such as the one shown in FIG. 1, to effectively remove nutrients from wastewater. Nutrient removal from wastewater is carried out by algae which in the presence of an operating radiation source consumes nutrients. Algae also boost level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater. However, level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater may not be high enough to meet the requirement of discharge to environment. 
====================================


[0082]It is noteworthy that if after anaerobic treatment aerobic treatment did not follow, then wastewater with low level of dissolved oxygen would have entered the HRAP posing a risk of killing algae in an oxygen-depleted environment. Thus, anaerobic treatment followed by aerobic treatment ensures that wastewater is prepared for nutrient removal in the subsequent steps. 


[0083]In the next treatment steps, level of dissolved oxygen in wastewater is raised to allow discharge to environment. Preferably a DAF is used to provide diffused air flow for raising level of dissolved oxygen and removing algae and other solids from wastewater. Solid removal lowers BOD level and solid content in wastewater. Then, for removal of finer particles, wastewater is advanced to an SRT which uses diffused air for removal of solids from and to introduce oxygen in wastewater. Consequently, wastewater has the requisite high level of dissolved oxygen and lower BOD level and solid content for discharge into environment. 


[0084]Although wastewater is now ready for discharge into environment, preferred embodiments treat this wastewater in a maturation pond where it is exposed to elements found in the environment. Wastewater matures and is adapted to the natural environment in the maturation pond, from where it is discharged to the environment. 


[0085]Although illustrative embodiments of this invention have been shown and described, other modifications, changes, and substitutions are intended. Accordingly, it is appropriate that the appended claims be construed broadly and in a manner consistent with the scope of the disclosure, as set forth in the following claims. 

Patent applications by EcoTech Law Group, P.C.
Link : http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20100252498
Sat October 09 2010 05:14:27 AM by Richard algae patent  |  patent  |  algae bioremediation patent

Algael lipids yield doubled - Montana research

Algal biofuel production could double in yield and in far less time, thanks to a chemical trigger discovered at Montana State University.
The chemical trigger is a well-timed dose of bicarbonate, a low-cost, easy-to-use chemical, similar to common stomach antacids. 
These results were presented on the first day of the Algal Biomass Summit in Phoenix, Ariz.
When given to algae during a specific point in its growth cycle, the bicarbonate doubles the rate of production of triacylglycerol, the key precursor to biodiesel.
 Some cultures have shown nearly three times faster rates of triacylglycerol accumulation, which would result in significant cost savings for biofuel manufacturers. 
This effect has been shown in both diatoms and in green alga.
The bicarbonate also shortens the time it takes to reach high lipid yields and can be used to further enhance the efficiency of almost any algal production facility. 
The use of the bicarbonate addition could be beneficial to any industry where improved triacylglycerol yields are critical, such as biodiesel production and the neutraceutical industry. 
Richard Spyros


The technology is available for licensing to interested companies and entrepreneurs.
Interested companies and entrepreneurs can license the new technology by contacting Nick Zelver with the MSU Technology Transfer Office at (406) 994-7868, http://tto.montana.edu or by e-mail at nzelver@montana.edu . MSU requests that interest be expressed in writing by Oct. 31, 2010.


Nick Zelver, MSU Technology Transfer Office, (406) 994-7868, nzelver@montana.edu
Wed October 06 2010 12:58:48 PM by Richard 3 Montana state university  |  MSU  |  triacylglycerol accumulation  |  diatoms  |  green algae

NER of a microalgae in biodiesel making

Consensus on LCAs are rare. No two scientists agree on methods.
Researchers at Colorado State University took up an LCA study on  industrial-scale engineering model for the species Nannochloropsis using a photobioreactor architecture.. 

 They integrated this process-level model with a lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas emission analysis compatible with the methods and boundaries of the Argonne National Laboratory GREET model to ensure comparability to preexisting fuel-cycle assessments. They  have found that a microalgae biodiesel process using currently available technologies can show improvement in lifecycle GHG emissions and net energy ratio (NER) compared to soybean-based biodiesel

Consensus on LCAs are rare. No two scientists agree on methods.

Conductiong  a coherent LCA of the microalgae-to-biodiesel process requires detailed models of each of the feedstock processing stages (growth, dewater, extraction, conversion, and distribution) combined with a standard and consistent set of LCA boundary definitions and  conditions.


To describe the net energy and GHG impacts of microalgae biodiesel, one  must develop a valid, extensible, and internally consistent model of the materials inputs, energy use, and products for the process.


 The three primary components of this model are a detailed engineering process simulation of microalgae from growth through extraction, a more generalized model of microalgae from conversion to end use, and an integrated calculation of net energy and GHG emissions due to impacts from the inputs, outputs, processes, and coproduct allocation for the microalgae biodiesel production.?Batan et al.

Their analysis of this process and organism found the Net Energy Ratio (MJ consumed?(MJ produced)-1) for microalage biodiesel to be 0.93; for soybean biodiesel to be 1.64; and for petroleum diesel to be 0.19. 

Although the energy required to support the growth stage during microalgae cultivation is 2.1 times higher than the energy required to support soy growth, they found that microalgae extraction uses less energy than soy oil extraction.


The primary energetic advantage of the microalgae process, relative to soy, is related to the energy embedded in the feedstock. Soybeans contain 18% lipid by dry weight, whereas Nannochloropsis salina contains 50%. This means that less microalgae is required to produce 1 unit of biofuel energy than is required of soybeans.?Batan et al.

In terms of net greenhouse gas emissions, microalgae showed a net ?strain to pump? (gCO2eq?MJ-1) of -75.29; soybean diesel showed net GHG emissions of -71.73; and petroleum diesel showed emissions of 17.24.

Both biofuels result in a net negative CO2 output due to CO2 capture intrinsic in the production of biomass during photosynthesis, the displacement of petroleum, and the displacement of coproducts. 

The microalgae biodiesel process has a 5% better performance in terms of net GHGs compared to soybean based biodiesel in the boundary "strain-to-pump".

 A notable component of the microalgae GHG emissions reduction is the net avoidance of N2O that is achieved. Although the microalgae growth stage uses a higher mass of N-fertilizer than the soy growth stage, the aerobic conditions of microalgae cultures suppress the direct emission of N2O.?Batan et Liaw Batan, Jason Quinn, Bryan Willson, and Thomas Bradley*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1374, United States
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es102052y
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/09/batan-20100925.html
Sun September 26 2010 02:45:40 PM by Richard 8 NER  |  jason quinn  |  Liaw Batan  |  nanochloropsys  |  LCA

Importance of storage temperature : Chaetoceros calcitrans

The storage temperature showed a greater influence to the quality of C. calcitrans cells than the method of harvesting cells from the culture broth.

For all separation methods used (flocculation (MagnaflocLT 25, chitosan), centrifugation and TFF), the preferred storage temperature to maintain the quality of C. calcitrans cells was at chilled condition (4degC).

For cell concentrate harvested by flocculation with MagnaflocLT 25 followed by resuspension to pH 7 using hydrochloric acid, the quality of cells could be maintained up to 2 weeks of storage at 27degC.


This may be related to low cell density of the cell concentrate as compared to those produced by other separation method.

Frozen cultures (-20degC) were unable to revive in fresh medium regardless of the separation methods used.

The authors of this article are
Z.T. Harith, F.M. Yusoff, M. Shariff and A.B. Arif
----
Richard Spyros




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    //Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.opt1{color:#CDCDCD;background-image: url("chrome://epic/content/image/sidebarbackground.png");background-repeat: repeat-x;}');
    //Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.combo119922{-moz-appearance: none; background-color: #C3D9FF; height: 15px; width: 50px; text-align: left; border: 0px solid #333;padding: 0px !important; margin: 0px !important;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.check1{-moz-appearance: none;border: 1px solid #a82; margin-left: 3px; color: #13c;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.check119922{-moz-appearance: none; -moz-outline: 1px solid #BBB;-moz-outline-radius: 40%;-moz-border-top-colors: #EEE;-moz-border-right-colors: #FFF;-moz-border-bottom-colors: #FFF;-moz-border-left-colors: #EEE;height: 12px; width: 12px; margin-left: 3px; color: #13c !important;background: none;}');
    },

    transliterationControl: undefined,
    initialized: false,
    defaultLanguage: 'HINDI',
    currentLanguage: null,
    supportTextBoxes: false,
    enabledElements:
  • ,

    init: function() {
    if(Transliterate.initialized){
    return;
    }
    var lang = Transliterate.getCookie('Transliterate_LANG');
    lang = (lang)?lang: google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode[Transliterate.defaultLanguage
  • ;
    var enabled = Transliterate.getCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED');
    if(!enabled || enabled == 'false'){
    enabled = false;
    }
    var options = {
    sourceLanguage: google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode.ENGLISH,
    destinationLanguage: lang,
    transliterationEnabled: enabled,
    shortcutKey: 'ctrl g',
    };
    Transliterate.transliterationControl = new google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl(options);
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.addEventListener(
    google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl.EventType.STATE_CHANGED, Transliterate.transliterateStateChangeHandler);

    Transliterate.transliterationControl.addEventListener(
    google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl.EventType.SERVER_UNREACHABLE,
    Transliterate.serverUnreachableHandler);

    Transliterate.transliterationControl.addEventListener(
    google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl.EventType.SERVER_REACHABLE,
    Transliterate.serverReachableHandler);
    if (this.is_local) {
    document.getElementById('checkboxId').checked = true;
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.toggleTransliteration();
    Transliterate.setCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED', true);
    } else {
    document.getElementById('checkboxId').checked = Transliterate.transliterationControl.isTransliterationEnabled();
    }
    Transliterate.populateLanguageBox();
    //google.language.getBranding('poweredby');
    Transliterate.initialized = true;
    },

    transliterateStateChangeHandler: function(e) {
    document.getElementById('checkboxId').checked = e.transliterationEnabled;
    },
    serverUnreachableHandler: function(e) {
    },

    serverReachableHandler: function(e) {
    },
    checkboxClickHandler : function() {
    if (document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#000000";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "bold";
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var lang = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex].text;
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    }
    } else {
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#8A8384";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "normal";
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var lang = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex].text;
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " lang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " lang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " lang " ON";
    }
    }
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.toggleTransliteration();
    Transliterate.setCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED', Transliterate.transliterationControl.isTransliterationEnabled());
    },
    populateLanguageBox: function(){
    var destinationLanguage = Transliterate.transliterationControl.getLanguagePair().destinationLanguage;
    var languageSelect = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var supportedDestinationLanguages = google.elements.transliteration.getDestinationLanguages(google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode.ENGLISH);
    var oc = 0;
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var opt = document.createElement('option');
    opt.className = "opt0";
    languageSelect.add(opt, null);
    }

    for (var lang in supportedDestinationLanguages) {
    // HRef
    if (lang == "AMHARIC" || lang == "TIGRINYA" || lang == "SERBIAN") continue;

    var opt = document.createElement('option');
    var langStr = Transliterate.getCamelizedStr(lang);
    var locLang = langStr.substring(0, 1);
    var langCode = supportedDestinationLanguages[lang];
    opt.text = langStr;//Transliterate.getTransliterationStr(locLang, langCode, opt, function(res){opt.text=res;});
    opt.title = langStr;
    var f = function(ele, res){
    ele.title = res ' (' ele.title ')';
    };
    Transliterate.getTransliterationStr(langStr, langCode, opt, f);
    opt.value = langCode;
    opt.className = "opt" ((oc )%2);
    if (destinationLanguage == opt.value) {
    opt.selected = true;
    Transliterate._controlDiv.title = 'Type in ' opt.title;
    }
    try {
    languageSelect.add(opt, null);
    } catch (ex) {
    languageSelect.add(opt);
    }
    }
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var opt = languageSelect.options[0];
    var currLang = languageSelect.options[languageSelect.selectedIndex].text;
    if (document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    opt.text = "Turn " currLang " OFF";
    opt.title = "Turn " currLang " OFF";
    } else {
    opt.text = "Turn " currLang " ON";
    opt.title = "Turn " currLang " ON";
    }
    }
    if (document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#000000";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "bold";
    } else {
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#8A8384";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "normal";
    }
    },
    getTransliterationStr: function(str, lang, ele, callback){
    google.language.transliterate([str], "en", lang, function(result) {
    if (!result.error) {
    if (result.transliterations && result.transliterations.length > 0 &&
    result.transliterations[0].transliteratedWords.length > 0) {
    var res = result.transliterations[0].transliteratedWords[0];
    if(callback){
    return callback(ele, res);
    }
    ele.innerHTML = res;
    }
    }
    });
    },
    getLang: function(code){
    for (l in google.language.Languages) {
    if(google.language.Languages[l] == code){
    return l;
    }
    }
    },
    getLanguageForCode: function(code){
    var lang = Transliterate.getLang(code);
    if(lang){
    lang = Transliterate.getCamelizedStr(lang);
    }
    return lang;
    },

    getCamelizedStr: function(str){
    str = str.toLowerCase();
    str = str.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase() str.substring(1, str.length);
    return str;
    },

    languageChangeHandler: function(defaultev) {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var selOpt = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex];
    var selectedLang = selOpt.value;
    if (!selectedLang.match("Turn")) {
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.setLanguagePair(google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode.ENGLISH, selectedLang);
    Transliterate._controlDiv.title = 'Type in ' selOpt.title '. Click on the checkbox to turn on/off the language setting.';
    if(!defaultev){
    Transliterate.setCookie('Transliterate_LANG', selectedLang);
    }
    Transliterate.currentLanguage = selectedLang;
    }
    },

    afterChange: function() {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var selOpt = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex];
    var selectedLang = selOpt.value;
    if (selectedLang.match("Turn")) {
    for (var i = 0; i < dropdown.options.length; i ) {
    if (dropdown.options[i].value == Transliterate.currentLanguage) {
    dropdown.selectedIndex = i;
    var lang = dropdown.options[i].text;
    }
    }

    if (document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked = false;
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#8A8384";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "normal";
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " lang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " lang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " lang " ON";
    } else {
    document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked = true;
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#000000";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "bold";
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    }
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.toggleTransliteration();
    Transliterate.setCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED', Transliterate.transliterationControl.isTransliterationEnabled());

    } else {
    if (!document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    document.getElementById("checkboxId").click();
    } else {
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var currLang = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex].text;
    if (document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " currLang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " currLang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " currLang " OFF";
    } else {
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " currLang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " currLang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " currLang " ON";
    }
    }
    }
    }
    },

    toggleLanguage: function(event) {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    if (event.target.innerHTML == dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex].text) {
    if (!document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    document.getElementById("checkboxId").click();
    }
    }
    },

    _controlDiv: undefined,
    createComponents: function(){
    // HRef
    var controlHTML = ""
    ""
    ""
    ""
    ""
    "
    "
    ""
    ""
    "";
    var dDiv = document.createElement('div');
    dDiv.innerHTML = controlHTML;
    Transliterate._controlDiv = dDiv.firstChild;
    //document.importNode(Transliterate._controlDiv, true);
    document.body.appendChild(Transliterate._controlDiv);
    Transliterate._controlDiv.dimension = {'width': Transliterate._controlDiv.offsetWidth, 'height': Transliterate._controlDiv.offsetHeight};

    if (this.is_local) {
    Transliterate._controlDiv.style.display = 'block';
    } else {
    Transliterate._controlDiv.style.display = 'none';
    }
    },
    parentWin: undefined,
    performAction: function(){
    google.load('language', "1");
    google.load("elements", "1", {
    packages: ["transliteration"],
    });
    google.setOnLoadCallback(Transliterate.init);
    },
    setCookie: function(cookieName, cookieValue, nDays) {
    var today = new Date();
    var expire = new Date();
    if (nDays==null || nDays==0) nDays=30;
    expire.setTime(today.getTime() 3600000*24*nDays);
    document.cookie = cookieName "=" escape(cookieValue)
    ";expires=" expire.toGMTString();
    },

    getCookie: function(name) {
    var theCookies = document.cookie.split(/[; ] /);
    for (var i = 0 ; i < theCookies.length; i ) {
    var aName = theCookies[i].substring(0,theCookies[i].indexOf('='));
    if (aName == name) {
    var c = theCookies[i];
    var index = c.lastIndexOf('=');
    c = c.substring(index 1, c.length);
    return c;
    }
    }
    },

    eventAdded: false,
    onLoad: function(loadCallback){
    if(Transliterate.loaded){
    return loadCallback();
    }
    document.write = function(scr){
    var d = document.createElement('div');
    d.innerHTML = scr;
    document.body.appendChild(d.firstChild);
    };
    var callBack = function(){
    Transliterate.addStyles();
    Transliterate.createComponents();
    Transliterate.performAction();
    loadCallback();
    };
    Transliterate.addScript('http://www.google.com/jsapi', callBack);
    Transliterate.loaded = true;
    },
    addEvents: function(){
    if(Transliterate.eventAdded){
    return;
    }
    Transliterate.eventAdded = true;
    document.addEventListener('mousedown', Transliterate.handleEvent, true);
    document.addEventListener('focus', Transliterate.handleEvent, true);
    /*document.addEventListener('blur', function(ev){
    var tar = ev.target;
    tar.removeEventListener('click', Transliterate.handleEvent, false);
    tar.removeEventListener('focus', Transliterate.handleEvent, false);
    }, false);*/
    },
    autoIdCntr: 1,
    isEditableElement: function(el){
    var tag = el.tagName;
    if(!tag || el.disabled == true || el.readOnly == true){
    return false;
    }
    if(tag.toLowerCase() == 'textarea'){
    return true;
    }
    if(Transliterate.supportTextBoxes && tag.toLowerCase() == 'input' && el.type.toLowerCase() == 'text'){
    return true;
    }
    if(tag.toLowerCase() == 'div' && el.contentEditable.toLowerCase() == 'true'){
    return true;
    }
    if(tag.toLowerCase() == 'iframe'){
    var iframedoc = el.contentWindow.document;
    if(iframedoc.designMode.toLowerCase() == "on" || iframedoc.body.contentEditable.toLowerCase() == "true") {
    return true;
    }
    }
    },
    handleEvent: function(event){
    try{
    // HRef
    if (this.is_local) {
    var el = document.getElementById('myTextarea');
    } else {
    var el = event.target;
    }
    if(Transliterate.isEditableElement(el)){
    var lazyLoader = function(){
    Transliterate.lazyLoadObjects(el);
    };
    var initer = function(){
    Transliterate.checkAndWaitTillInit(lazyLoader);
    };
    Transliterate.onLoad(initer);
    return;
    }
    if(!Transliterate.isCntrlsDiv(el)){
    Transliterate.showControl(el, true);
    }
    }catch(e){
    }
    },
    waitCounter: 0,
    checkAndWaitTillInit: function(callback){
    try{
    Transliterate.init();
    }catch(e){
    if(Transliterate.waitCounter == 15){
    return;
    }
    Transliterate.waitCounter ;
    var f = function(){
    Transliterate.checkAndWaitTillInit(callback);
    };
    setTimeout(f, 200);
    return;
    }
    callback();
    },
    isInTheList: function(el){
    for(var i=0; ivar Transliterate = {
    loaded: false,
    // HRef
    is_local:false,
    is_write:false,
    is_newtab:false,
    getHead: function(){
    var head = document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0];
    if (!head) {
    return document.body;
    }
    return head;
    },
    addGlobalStyle: function(css) {
    var head = Transliterate.getHead();
    var style = document.createElement('style');
    style.type = 'text/css';
    style.innerHTML = css;
    head.appendChild(style);
    },

    addScript: function(scriptSrc, callback){
    var head = Transliterate.getHead();
    var script = document.createElement('script');
    script.language = "JavaScript";
    script.src = scriptSrc;
    script.type = 'text/javascript';
    if(callback){
    script.onload = function(){
    callback();
    script.onload = null;
    };
    }
    head.appendChild(script);
    },

    addStyles: function(){
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.goog-transliterate-indic-suggestion-menu {position: absolute;background-color: #EFEFEF;border: 1px outset #7F7F7F;cursor: default;font: small arial, helvetica, sans-serif;margin: 0px;padding: 0px;outline: none;z-index: 20000;}');
    //Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.goog-transliterate-indic-suggestion-menuitem-highlight {background-color: #C3D9FF;border-color: #70a0b0;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.goog-transliterate-indic-suggestion-menuitem {position: relative;padding: 1px 1em;margin: 0px;list-style: none;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.fnts, .combo119922{font-family:arial,sans-serif;font-size:10px !important;}.lab{cursor: pointer;}');
    //Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.cbut{background: #C3D9FF;border: 1px solid #5F9DFF;}');
    // HRef
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.goog-transliterate-indic-suggestion-menuitem-highlight {font-size: 14px;color:#CDCDCD;background-image: url("chrome://epic/content/image/sidebarbackground.png");background-repeat: repeat-x;border-color: #70a0b0;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.opt0, .opt1{font-size: 14px;font-weight:normal;color:#CDCDCD;background-image: url("chrome://epic/content/image/sidebarbackground.png");background-repeat: repeat-x;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.opt0:hover, .opt1:hover{background:#FF6D00;}');
    if ((this.is_local) || (this.is_write)) {
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.cbut{background: #CDCDCD;border: 1px solid #000000;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.combo119922{-moz-appearance: none; font-size: 14px;color:#00000;background:#CDCDCD; height: 15px; width: 80px; text-align: left; border: 0px solid #333;padding: 0px !important; margin: 0px !important;}');
    } else {
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.cbut{background: #CDCDCD;border: 1px solid #8A8384;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.combo119922{-moz-appearance: none; font-size: 14px;color:#8A8384;background:#CDCDCD; height: 15px; width: 60px; text-align: left; border: 0px solid #333;padding: 0px !important; margin: 0px !important;}');
    }
    //Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.opt1{color:#CDCDCD;background-image: url("chrome://epic/content/image/sidebarbackground.png");background-repeat: repeat-x;}');
    //Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.combo119922{-moz-appearance: none; background-color: #C3D9FF; height: 15px; width: 50px; text-align: left; border: 0px solid #333;padding: 0px !important; margin: 0px !important;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.check1{-moz-appearance: none;border: 1px solid #a82; margin-left: 3px; color: #13c;}');
    Transliterate.addGlobalStyle('.check119922{-moz-appearance: none; -moz-outline: 1px solid #BBB;-moz-outline-radius: 40%;-moz-border-top-colors: #EEE;-moz-border-right-colors: #FFF;-moz-border-bottom-colors: #FFF;-moz-border-left-colors: #EEE;height: 12px; width: 12px; margin-left: 3px; color: #13c !important;background: none;}');
    },

    transliterationControl: undefined,
    initialized: false,
    defaultLanguage: 'HINDI',
    currentLanguage: null,
    supportTextBoxes: false,
    enabledElements:
  • ,

    init: function() {
    if(Transliterate.initialized){
    return;
    }
    var lang = Transliterate.getCookie('Transliterate_LANG');
    lang = (lang)?lang: google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode[Transliterate.defaultLanguage];
    var enabled = Transliterate.getCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED');
    if(!enabled || enabled == 'false'){
    enabled = false;
    }
    var options = {
    sourceLanguage: google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode.ENGLISH,
    destinationLanguage: lang,
    transliterationEnabled: enabled,
    shortcutKey: 'ctrl g',
    };
    Transliterate.transliterationControl = new google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl(options);
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.addEventListener(
    google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl.EventType.STATE_CHANGED, Transliterate.transliterateStateChangeHandler);

    Transliterate.transliterationControl.addEventListener(
    google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl.EventType.SERVER_UNREACHABLE,
    Transliterate.serverUnreachableHandler);

    Transliterate.transliterationControl.addEventListener(
    google.elements.transliteration.TransliterationControl.EventType.SERVER_REACHABLE,
    Transliterate.serverReachableHandler);
    if (this.is_local) {
    document.getElementById('checkboxId').checked = true;
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.toggleTransliteration();
    Transliterate.setCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED', true);
    } else {
    document.getElementById('checkboxId').checked = Transliterate.transliterationControl.isTransliterationEnabled();
    }
    Transliterate.populateLanguageBox();
    //google.language.getBranding('poweredby');
    Transliterate.initialized = true;
    },

    transliterateStateChangeHandler: function(e) {
    document.getElementById('checkboxId').checked = e.transliterationEnabled;
    },
    serverUnreachableHandler: function(e) {
    },

    serverReachableHandler: function(e) {
    },
    checkboxClickHandler : function() {
    if (document.getElementById("checkboxId").checked) {
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#000000";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#92C166";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "bold";
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var lang = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex].text;
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " lang " OFF";
    }
    } else {
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.color = "#8A8384";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").parentNode.style.background = "#CDCDCD";
    document.getElementById("languageDropDown").style.fontWeight = "normal";
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var dropdown = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var lang = dropdown.options[dropdown.selectedIndex].text;
    dropdown.options[0].text = "Turn " lang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].title = "Turn " lang " ON";
    dropdown.options[0].value = "Turn " lang " ON";
    }
    }
    Transliterate.transliterationControl.toggleTransliteration();
    Transliterate.setCookie('Transliterate_ENABLED', Transliterate.transliterationControl.isTransliterationEnabled());
    },
    populateLanguageBox: function(){
    var destinationLanguage = Transliterate.transliterationControl.getLanguagePair().destinationLanguage;
    var languageSelect = document.getElementById('languageDropDown');
    var supportedDestinationLanguages = google.elements.transliteration.getDestinationLanguages(google.elements.transliteration.LanguageCode.ENGLISH);
    var oc = 0;
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var opt = document.createElement('option');
    opt.className = "opt0";
    languageSelect.add(opt, null);
    }

    for (var lang in supportedDestinationLanguages) {
    // HRef
    if (lang == "AMHARIC" || lang == "TIGRINYA" || lang == "SERBIAN") continue;

    var opt = document.createElement('option');
    var langStr = Transliterate.getCamelizedStr(lang);
    var locLang = langStr.substring(0, 1);
    var langCode = supportedDestinationLanguages[lang];
    opt.text = langStr;//Transliterate.getTransliterationStr(locLang, langCode, opt, function(res){opt.text=res;});
    opt.title = langStr;
    var f = function(ele, res){
    ele.title = res ' (' ele.title ')';
    };
    Transliterate.getTransliterationStr(langStr, langCode, opt, f);
    opt.value = langCode;
    opt.className = "opt" ((oc )%2);
    if (destinationLanguage == opt.value) {
    opt.selected = true;
    Transliterate._controlDiv.title = 'Type in ' opt.title;
    }
    try {
    languageSelect.add(opt, null);
    } catch (ex) {
    languageSelect.add(opt);
    }
    }
    if (!this.is_local) {
    var opt = languageSelect.options[0];
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    Sun September 26 2010 12:30:18 PM by Richard floculation  |  separation  |  storage temperature  |  Chaetoceros calcitrans

    A promising genus for biofuel production with Chlorella microalgae genome




    The analysis of the complete genome of Chlorella microalgae, a promising genus for biofuel production, has been completed by the Laboratoire Information Genomique et Structurale of CNRS, France, which is currently heading an international collaboration involving American and Japanese laboratories. 

    The detailed elucidation of the Chlorella genome, also widely used as a food supplement, will make it possible to rationalize its industrial use. 

    This analysis has also brought to light unexpected findings at the fundamental level: it suggests that Chlorella could have a sexual cycle (which had gone unnoticed so far) and that a virus probably gave it the capacity to synthesize chitin-rich cell walls, a unique property in algae. 

    This work is published online onThe Plant Cell journal's website.




    http://www.physorg.com/news204367138.html
    abce
    Fri September 24 2010 10:16:17 PM by Richard 13 Chlorella genome  |  Chlorella

    CO2 capture for algae cultivation. A new patent !!

    CO2 capture for algae cultivation . A new patent !!Here it is an all new reversible co2 capture process to be patented. To all researchers it is a great time. The time when u patent your invention. Cheers !


    The  invention focuses on two main factors responsible for the high cost of liquid fuel from aquatic biomass, the high cost of CO2, and the high cost of converting aquatic biomass to bio-oil. 

     The most common form of aquatic biomass is obtained from growing algae. 




    When there is enough available sun light, the availability of CO2 generally is the rate determining step on the production of aquatic biomass. Although there is an unlimited supply of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere, the concentration of CO2 in ambient air is low. The gas is also poorly soluble in water. 

    It has been proposed to increase the growth rate of aquatic biomass by bubbling CO2 through an algae growing pond. Although this technique significantly increases the production of aquatic biomass, the cost of CO2 gas considerably adds to the cost of aquatic biomass so produced. 

    It is possible to use for the production of aquatic biomass CO2 produced in the combustion of fossil fuels, such as in coal, oil or gas-fired power plants.

     However, it is rarely possible to construct algae growing ponds of a meaningful size in the immediate vicinity of a power plant.


     Also, many power plants are not located in areas that have the required amount of sunshine required for the economic production of aquatic biomass. Even if all these requirements are met, power plants tend to produce most of their CO2 by-product at night and during the winter time, that is, when the demand for CO2 from the algae-growing ponds is low. 

    There is therefore a need for a process for producing aquatic biomass that has a reduced dependency on the time and location of the production of CO2 in the combustion of fossil fuel. 

    This is addressed by the present invention, which provides a plant for producing aquatic biomass comprising:
    a) a pond adapted for growing aquatic biomass;
    b) a system for providing CO2 to said pond; 
    and
    c) a CO2 capturing material capable of reversibly capturing CO2 



    The reversible capture of CO2 may be based on temperature. Materials particularly suitable for use in element c) are those that capture CO2 when contacted with CO2 at a relatively low temperature, for example a temperature below 200 dec C., and release CO2 when heated to a more elevated temperature, for example a temperature above 250 deg C. 

    Preferred CO2 capturing materials are those comprising an inorganic oxide. Suitable examples include natural and synthetic clays; oxides and hydroxides of aluminum, magnesium, calcium; alumina/magnesia mixtures; meixnerites; hydrotalcite and hydrotalcite-like materials; and mixtures thereof. 

    The CO2 capturing material is loaded with CO2 at or near a location where CO2 is produced, for example as a by-product of some other process, such as the generation of electricity. 


    After loading with CO2 the material is shipped to the plant for producing aquatic biomass, where it is charged to a suitable reactor for release of the CO2. Importantly, the material may temporarily be stored until the CO2 demand of the plant justifies its use. 



    Although the invention permits the transportation of CO2 over any distance, in the form of the CO2 capturing material loaded with CO2, it will be understood that transportation distances are preferably kept short. 



    The invention may also use CO2 produced in the combustion of a renewable resource, such a bio-fuel. In this case the process results in a net reduction of the output of CO2, thereby off-setting CO2 production from fossil fuels elsewhere on the planet. The off-set results in valuable carbon credits, which may be traded in the market for such credits. 




    The pond adapted for growing aquatic biomass preferably has a depth of from 10 to 100 cm. Depending on the algae species being grown, the pond may be filled with sea water or fresh water. The use of sea water is preferred, as its use does not divert precious fresh water supplies. 



    CO2 is released from the CO2 capturing material by, for example, heating the capturing material in a suitable reactor to a temperature at which the captured CO2 is released. The capturing material is hereby regenerated. The regenerated capturing material may be shipped back to the CO2-producing location, for re-use. 



    CO2 produced in the reactor is pumped to the pond for growing aquatic biomass, and bubbled through the water contained in the pond through suitable nozzles. Preferably the nozzles are located near the bottom of the pond. 



    It is desirable to tune the amount of CO2 provided to the pond to the amount the algae are capable of converting. On an annual basis it is estimated that a pond may produce from 100 to 400 metric tons of aquatic biomass per hectare (104 m2) per year.


     This corresponds to 10 to 40 kg per m2 per year. About two thirds of this mass comes from CO2 (the other one third comes from water consumed in the photosynthesis process). Therefore a pond consumes from about 6.7 to about 27 kg CO2 per m2 per year. 



    The consumption of CO2 per hour fluctuates with the amount of sunshine available at any given point in time, and with the amount of algae present in the pond. The skilled person will be able to estimate the CO2 consumption.



     It is possible to provide a computer-control based process, which uses the brightness of the sunlight and the amount of biomass in the water (based on, for example, turbidity) as input parameters, and which provides the CO2 demand as an output parameter. 

    The invention further comprises a method for producing aquatic biomass comprising the steps of: [0042
  • a) providing a pond containing water and suitable nutrients for growing aquatic biomass; [0043]b) providing algae for growing in the pond; [0044]c) providing light shining on the pond; [0045]d) providing CO2 to the pond from a CO2 capturing material capable of reversibly capturing CO2. 

    Preferably the algae used in step b) comprise micro-algae. 

    The light used in step c) preferably is natural sunlight. 

    Preferred CO2 capturing materials are those comprising an inorganic oxide. Suitable examples include natural and synthetic clays; oxides and hydroxides of aluminum, magnesium, calcium; alumina/magnesia mixtures; meixnerites; hydrotalcite and hydrotalcite-like materials; and mixtures thereof. 

    source http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20100233786
  • Fri September 24 2010 12:26:28 AM by Richard 8 carbon capture  |  CO2 capture  |  algae carbon capture  |  patent

    Algae fuel process to be patented

    During the past five years, researchers at Old Dominion University have devised ways to cultivate and harvest microscopic algae, and then to convert them into a biodiesel fuel by a proprietary one-step process.



     Now they have discovered another process - which they also hope to patent - that produces a versatile, algae-based liquid similar to crude oil.



    Patrick Hatcher, the ODU Batten Endowed Chair in Physical Sciences and the executive director of the Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium (VCERC), said in an interview Friday, Aug. 20, that this new oil he and collaborators are producing can be refined into gasoline and jet fuel, as well as diesel fuel.

    Furthermore, Hatcher said the new oil is derived from a biopolymer in the algal cell wall, and not from the fatty lipids that are extracted for biodiesel fuel. In other words, from the same batch of algae, the researchers can extract a vegetable oil-like biodiesel fuel as well as another oily substance that is quite different.

    "It's a twofer, actually a 'threefer,'" Hatcher said, referring to the way the one sample of algae can now turn out two types of liquid fuels, as well as a protein-rich by-product that can be used as animal feed.

    Proteins, which can make up 25 to 50 percent of algal cellular matter, are an impediment to scientists looking for ways to produce oils from the microorganisms. Hatcher's research team is using a proprietary chemical treatment to strip the proteins from algal cells.


     "This technique is very commonly used in biomedical research to extract proteins so they can be studied," Hatcher explained.

    So without having to use a lot of energy in an extra step to extract the proteins, the researchers are employing the chemical treatment to prepare the algae for a thermal process called pyrolysis, which frees the biofuels.

    The result of their new process is a liquid much like high-quality crude oil, according to Hatcher. "It's actually better than the light sweet crude you get from Saudia Arabia. It doesn't have the nitrogen and sulfur molecules and is low in, or maybe free of, oxygen."


    "An oil company would hug you if you shipped this oil"
    to its refinery, Hatcher added. "Nitrogen poisons refinery catalysts as well as catalytic converters (in automobile exhaust systems). Oil companies spend billions to reduce nitrogen in fuel."



    A portion of the algae left behind after this conversion process is a biopolymer from the cell walls of algae called algaenan. It has some properties of plastic, or polyethylene. Hatcher believes it is actually a type of polyester. Whatever it is, it is the sturdy stuff - similar to a skeleton or shell - that enables algae to show up in the fossil record.



    Researchers elsewhere also have shown that algaenan can be cooked in the presence of little or no oxygen - the technique called pyrolysis - producing gases that can be condensed into hydrocarbons. Before pyrolysis can be conducted, however, the algaenan needs to be separated from other parts of the algal biomass, such as proteins.

    Ways previously published by other scientists to separate out the algaenan were found wanting by the Hatcher research team. That's when Isaiah Ruhl, a research associate on the Hatcher team, suggested the new chemical treatment, for which he and Elodie Salmon, also an ODU research associate, are preparing a patent application.

    Hatcher said the new process overcomes a common problem with the pyrolysis of algae. "The pyro problem has been the tars, the crud, in the final product."

    Another strong advantage of the new process is the fact that it can be applied to wet algae. In ongoing ODU/VCERC biodiesel experiments, the algae that the researchers have grown at the ODU algal farm near Hopewell has been dried before it was fed into a device called an algaenator that extracted the FAME products.


    Wet algae cells resist giving up their lipid content. Unfortunately, drying the algae is a time- and energy-consuming process that detracts from the economic viability of algae-to-biodiesel conversion.




    Hatcher said the recent discoveries will not bring a phase-out of the original line of biodiesel research that focused only on FAME extraction from dried algae. The research team is in the process of upgrading the algaenator that is designed for that original work. "Our goal still is to get that algaenator set up and to measure the economics of FAME biodiesel production and evaluate that process thoroughly," he said.




    It would be possible, he pointed out, to go through the FAME biodiesel-producing procedures and then to apply the new process to the algal biomass byproduct, which would separate out proteins and leave the researchers with algaenan. Then pyrolysis could turn the algaenan into the versatile oil.




    This versatile oil, which so far at ODU has been produced only in quantities of a few ounces, is being tested this month on an instrument recently purchased by the university that simulates the distillation outcome for a particular oil. In other words, it shows the quality and types of products that a refinery could get from the oil. "So far, the results are very promising," Hatcher said.




    The research team has begun conversations with the U.S. Department of Defense officials, who are eager to find alternative and sustainable sources of "green" fuels, including the jet fuel that could be refined from the versatile oil. "They were very excited by what we had to tell them," Hatcher said.




    One aim of the ODU/VCERC research has been to get multiple benefits from the algae-to-biofuel process. With current technology, it is very difficult to produce biodiesel fuel that competes in price with $3 per gallon petrol diesel. But the "threefer" outcome described by Hatcher could go a long way toward changing that.




    ODU/VCERC has also shown that algae can grow well in wastewater treatment plant effluent, taking in nutrients that could harm the environment if the effluent were released into open waters. Another benefit is that algae take in carbon dioxide as they grow, helping to sequester a gas that has been linked to global warming.




    Therefore, the total product would be 1) renewable biofuels that would be produced locally and economically competitive with fossil fuels, 2) fuel that would produce carbon emissions lower than those for fossil fuels, with the aim of producing a zero net carbon emission fuel, 3) animal feed or fertilizer, 4) cleaner coastal waters and 5) marketable credits for removal of nutrients and carbon dioxide from discharges and emissions.

    In addition to ODU, where VCERC is based, the consortium includes researchers from Hampton University, James Madison University, Norfolk State University, Virginia Tech, the University of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University and the College of William and Mary's Virginia Institute of Marine Science. For more information, visit http://www.vcerc.org.
    Thu September 23 2010 09:56:28 PM by Richard 1 ODU  |  algae biofuel process  |  algaefuel process

    Biofuels via hydrolysis of seaweed - a patent

    This is a patent from Korea.

    Disclosed is a method for producing a biofuel. It comprises hydrolyzing an extract from a seaweed selected from a group consisting of red algae, brown algae, green algae or a combination therof in a presence of a heterogeneous catalyst; and converting the hydrolysate through enzymatic fermentation or chemical reaction into the biofuel. The heterogeneous catalyst can be recycled without a load of wastewater treatment and make the process simpler, thus enjoying a comparative advantage in terms of production cost and by-product treatment expense. In addition, the heterogeneous catalyst can be applied to a fixed bed reactor, allowing the process to be performed in a continuous manner. As a result, a smaller reactor can be employed at higher efficiency and productivity.


    YOON, Young Seek; (KR).GOH, Gi Ho; (KR).SONG, Jong Hee; (KR).OH, Seung Hoon; (KR).CHO, In Ho; (KR).KANG, Sin Young; (KR).PARK, Cher Hee; (KR).LEE, Seong Ho; (KR).
    Wed September 22 2010 07:29:58 AM by Richard 4 seaweed  |  algae  |  biofuel  |  korea  |  patent

    Joule gets a patent on gene modified cyanobacterium

    I have always held the company, Joule Unlimited at a high level in my mind, but  never new what they were upto.

    They are in the RedHerrings 100 top disruptive companies and now that I read about their patent, I know why they are so highly rated.

    Strictly speaking Cyanobacterium is not an algae.
    Cyanobacterium is called blue-green algae.

    Joule has won a patent for a genetically altered Cyano bacterium.

    The bacterium's product, which it secretes like sweat, is a class of
    hydrocarbon molecules called alkanes that are chemically
    indistinguishable from the ones made in oil
    refineries. The organism can grow in bodies of water unfit for drinking
    or on land that is useless for farming.
    This is as per  the company, Joule
    Unlimited of Cambridge, Mass.


    The bacterium's product, which it secretes like sweat, is a class of
    hydrocarbon molecules called alkanes that are chemically
    indistinguishable from the ones made in oil
    refineries.


    The organism can grow in bodies of water unfit for drinking
    or on land that is useless for farming, according to the company, Joule
    Unlimited of Cambridge, Mass.



    An independent expert, Matthew C. Posewitz, a professor at the Colorado
    School of Mines, said that making an organism that secreted hydrocarbons
    was ?definitely one of the most active areas in the whole game right
    now.?


    He said that Joule did not yet have a proved process, but that it had
    strong research and development capabilities. "They have some extreme
    horsepower within that company," the Prof said.



    Richard Spyros

    Tue September 14 2010 12:10:29 PM by Richard 5 genetically altered  |  gene modified  |  cyanobacteria  |  joule unlimited

    Algae based plastics - 5 to 8 years away - Frederic Scheer

    The bioplastics market is on a strong growth path and most of the growth will come from renewable-based polyolefin substitutes, as opposed to compostables, according to the CEO of US-based bioplastics producer Cereplast.

    Federic Scheer 
    Compostable plastics, such as resins purely made from starch-based polylactic acid (PLA) or polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), still cannot directly compete with traditional commodity plastics as it is a fairly small industry.

     People are not willing to pay for bioplastics with a 50-60% premium attached, much less twice the price of a traditional plastic, he added.
    Cereplast is selling its hybrid PP resins, which contain starch-based materials, at a slightly higher price. The resins required less energy compared to traditional plastics, thus enabling customers to offset the premium, noted Scheer.
    Cereplast is selling its hybrid PP at around 90 cents/lb ($1,984/tonne), while a truckload of hydrocarbon-based PP would cost 80-82 cents/lb for a small quantity order, he estimated. 

    The company is also working to develop a starch-based hybrid PE, which is expected to be commercialized early next year.
    Where the growth will come from  ?
    Scheer said Cereplast has been speaking with major polyolefin producers in the US and Europe, although no announcements are expected in the near future.
    "We will probably see small bioplastic companies such as us venture with very large polyolefin manufacturers.

     This is where the tremendous amount of growth will come from for bioplastics,"said Scheer. 

    "Polyolefin producers are definitely intrigued but they are still in the wait-and-see mode when it comes to bioplastics."
    "It will take a long time before bioplastic will have a major impact on the overall plastic market, even though the industry is growing exponentially," said Scheer.

    Cereplast is also working on developing algae-based plastics, but commercialization could be five to eight years away. "We are working with the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to see if we can get a supply of algae waste from its algae jet fuel program,"said Scheer.
     "We need a steady flow of raw material."
    So, the 5 to 8 years that he is talking about is to just ensure low cost feedstock. 
    Richard Spyros
    Mon September 13 2010 02:14:39 AM by Richard algae plastics  |  bioplastics  |  Federic Scheer  |  cereplast