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Status and barriers of advanced biofuel technologies: A review


Development of biofuels from renewable resources is critical to the sustainability of the world’s economy and to slow down the global climate change. Currently, a significant amount of bioethanol and biodiesel are produced as biofuels to partially replace gasoline and diesel, respectively, in the transportation sector worldwide. However, these biofuels represent a tiny portion (<4%) of the total fuels consumed. Furthermore, bioethanol is produced predominantly from sugarcane and corn, and biodiesel from crop and plant oils. Production of these raw materials is competing for the limited arable land against food and feed production. It is not feasible to tremendously increase biofuel production using the current technologies. Therefore, it is critical to investigate advanced or 2nd generation biofuel production technologies. This article is trying to summarize the current status of the 2nd generation biofuel technologies including bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials and biodiesel from microalgae. The summary includes the descriptions of the technologies, their advantages and challenges, feedstocks for the 2nd generation biofuels, the key barriers to their commercial applications, and future perspectives of the advanced technologies.

Sun June 05 2011 08:56:07 PM by Marta 28

Rapid estimation of triacylglycerol content of Chlorella sp. by thermogravimetric analysis
[Biotechnol Lett (2011) 33:957?960]

Abstract:  A simple and reliable method based on thermogravimetric
analysis has been developed for determining triacylglycerol content in
Chlorella sp.KR-1. There are two decomposing steps
during pyrolysis of the microalgal cells and the second step of weight loss may
be attributed to degradation and volatilization of triacylglycerols. The second
peak height in the temperature derivatives of weight loss increased with the
triacylglycerol content of the microalgal cells and the peak was around 390
_C regardless of the triacylglycerol contents. Based on
these findings, a linear equation for determining triacylglycerol content was
derived. The proposed method gives satisfactory results, showing small variance
and a good interpolation capability.

Sat May 28 2011 02:40:38 AM by Marta 28

Call for papers 14th AOCS Latin American Congress and Exhibition on Fats and Oil

AOCS Latin American Congress and Exhibition on Fats and Oils

Submission deadline: May 16, 2011.http://www.aocs.org/lacongress/en/index.cfm

Sun May 08 2011 06:00:22 PM by Marta 4

Deadline for Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale XXXVII in Brazil

Deadline for Colloquium Spectroscopicum
Internationale XXXVII in Brazil. August 28 - September 2, 2011


* Atomic plasma spectrometry (ICP, GD, AAS, etc.)

* Molecular spectrometry (UV-Vis, NMR, Raman, IR, etc.)

* Organic and inorganic mass spectrometry (TIMS, MALDI, LC-MS, GC-MS)

* X-ray spectrometry (XRF, XRD, XANES, PIXE, etc.)

* Hyphenated techniques

* Laser spectroscopy

* Imaging techniques

* Nuclear techniques (Mössbauer spectroscopy, Gamma spectroscopy, NAA)

* Material sciences (micro, surface and interface analysis)

* Environmental and geochemical analysis

* Archaeometry and cultural heritage

* Biological applications

* Food analysis

* Clinical and pharmaceutical analysis

* Speciation analysis

* Mass spectrometry in post-genomics and proteomics

* Miniaturisation and nanotechnology

* Fuels and biofuels

Sun May 08 2011 05:51:57 PM by Marta 29

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of microalgae for biofuel production.Bioresource Technology
102 (2011) 4890?4896.

Article Abstract:

The pyrolysis of  Chlorella sp.
was carried out in a microwave oven with char as microwave reception enhancer.
The results indicated that the maximum bio-oil yield of 28.6% was achieved
under the microwave power of 750 W. The bio-oil properties were characterized
with elemental, GC–MS, GPC, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis. The algal
bio-oil had a density of 0.98 kg/L, a viscosity of 61.2 cSt, and a higher
heating value (HHV) of 30.7 MJ/kg. The GC–MS results showed that the bio-oils
were mainly composed of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols,
long chain fatty acids and nitrogenated compounds, among which aliphatic and
aromatic hydrocarbons (account for 22.18% of the total GC–MS spectrum area) are
highly desirable compounds as those in crude oil, gasoline and diesel. The
results in this study indicate that fast growing algae are a promising source
of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production via microwave-assisted
pyrolysis (MAP).


Fri April 29 2011 02:28:58 AM by Marta 27

Algae Could Replace 17% of U.S. Oil Imports


Richland, Washington, USA -- High oil prices and environmental and economic security concerns have triggered interest in using algae-derived oils as an alternative to fossil fuels. But growing algae — or any other biofuel source — can require a lot of water.

However, a new study shows that being smart about where we grow algae can drastically reduce how much water is needed for algal biofuel. Growing algae for biofuel, while being water-wise, could also help meet congressionally mandated renewable fuel targets by replacing 17 percent of the nation's imported oil for transportation, according to a paper published in the journal Water Resources Research................................

Mon April 25 2011 12:54:27 AM by Marta 2