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Kumar's Blog

Algae Bio-Diesel

I am going to prepare 10 ltrs of biodiesel from algae.
I have collected strains.

The steps are:

1. Strain Stock
2. Culture preparation
3. With co2 supply & without co2 supply
4. Variable nitrogen supply
5. Mechanical separation of oil from algae
6. oil to biodiesel convertion

This is a pilot project. I would like call the Indian members to participate in this. I will distribute the data and reports to them. The cost of registration is $ 100.

Email id: kumar@istudiotech.com
Thu May 06 2010 03:41:54 PM by Kumar 1 Algae Bio-Diesel

Photo Bio-reactor Technical Information

I have tested a PBR design and it works success fully. Now i am creating it with technical details. Surely i will launch this commercially in the near...

PBRs are complex systems composed of several subsystems.
1. Light source
2. Optical transmission system
3. Reaction area
4. Gas exchange system
5. Filtration system (remove algal biomass)
6. Sensing system

Several of the subsystems of a PBR interact. The optical transmission system and gas
exchange system interact via the mixing that takes place in the reaction area. Algae are
moved into and out of lit areas by mixing. Assuming that the algae require time to
complete the photosynthetic process once sufficient energy is absorbed to initiate
photosynthesis, energy efficiency may be increased by moving algae into a dark area after
it has absorbed sufficient energy. state that 1ms is the time required to
complete a single cycle of the light reaction in photosynthesis. Moving algal cells into a
dark region of the reactor for a millisecond would likely not affect photosynthesis. Energy
absorbed by the algal cell once it has initiated photosynthesis most like is converted to
thermal energy. The thermal energy is then lost as heat or raises the temperature of the
algae cell.

A general design for a 500gal PBR will be presented. The design of the
below listed subsystems and the interaction of the subsystems will be discussed.
1. Light source
2. Reactor volume
3. Optical transmission system
4. Gas transfer/mixing system

Technical Informations:

The optical system chosen is generally described as a flat plate system. It is
desirable to provide a large lit surface area-to-volume ratio for the reactor. High density
algae cultures are relatively impervious to light transmission. Ogbonna and Tanaka (1997)
give the light extinction coefficient as 200 meters squared per kilogram. A 10g/l algae
concentration would yield an 86% loss of light energy at 1mm depth,
ln(I/Io)=200xCxd 1
where,
I-light intensity at depth of penetration d
Io-initial light intensity
C-algae concentration, kg/cubic meter or g/l

d=60/C 2
A 10g/l algae concentration would yield a penetration depth of 6mm from equation 2. Both
light penetration equation show how light penetration limits algal biomass production by
limiting light penetration.

photosynthesis can be maintained with a light intensity of 7.3 μmol/m2/s. They also state that a better
measure of light supply is the product of the light distribution coefficient defined as the
algal concentration at which 50% of the reactor volume receives sufficient light to
maintain photosynthesis and the energy per unit volume. Given a target algal production of
10g/l algal biomass production and a 6? (152mm) reactor depth lit on both sides yields a
desired light input of 7.4x1033mmol/m2/s. This light intensity is impractical. PBR design
must include mixing effects to move algae into and out of the light area of the reactor. Also
other techniques need to be explored for increasing lit volume of the reactor volume. Light
guides were developed for this purpose and will be discussed latter.

A lab scale PBR was built and tested at . The PBR was 10.67?x10.67? (271mmx271mm)
with a depth of 2? (50mm). The volume of the reactor
area was 3.7l and an algal biomass of 7.1g/l was produced in 14d. Light was provided by
650nm LED on circuit boards provided by DAKTROICS, Inc on each side of the PBR..
The boards provided 14.1W per board yielding a light intensity of 6.04x1014mmol/m2/s
(0.073m2 surface area). We estimate a potential algal biomass of 8.4g/l (light
distribution factor) indicating that the full potential of the PBR was not met. The light
supply for the PBR was 7.7kJ/s/m3.Combining the light distribution factor and the light
supply results in a light supply coefficient of 64.7kJ?kg/m6/s. The PBR had staggered
acrylic light guides 3/8? (9.5mm) in diameter that may have enhanced light distribution.

The 500gal PBR will be composed of 21- 48?x 19? (1220mmx483mm)
compartments with a depth of 6? (152mm) lit on both sides. Light will be provided by
fluorescent lights (1, 2, 5, or 8-40W bulbs on each side), 625nm LED (1536, 3072, and
6144 LEDs per side), grow lights, and metal halide lights. Light supply coefficients will be
determined for all lighting systems used. The light supply coefficients will be based on the
usable wavelengths of light in a spectrum. Usable wavelengths for algae are generally
assumed to be the red and blue visible regions around 436nm, 460nm, and 680nm.

Power Based on Algae Growth: The power required changes as the algal biomass
changes; grows. Kleinjan (1999) provides the following equation for energy demand of
algae.
E=2500xCxVxe0.03t
where,
E-energy required, J
2500-J/g of algae mass

V-reactor volume, l
0.03=ln2/24h-doubling time for algae culture
t-time, h
The integral of equation 3 yields the power (P, W) required by algae at any given time.

P=750xCxVe0.03t
Assuming that the desired doubling time is 24h,
P=1541xCxV
Kleinjan (1999) reported an energy efficiency of the algae of 22% which compares well
with the 23% obtained by Javanmardian and Palsson (1991). Adjusting for algae efficiency
gives:
P=7000xCxV 6
A PBR design must satisfy the energy/power needed for algal production.

Required Algal Biomass Production: Assuming the PBR is being designed to remove air
contaminates from livestock units, the algal biomass production must be sufficient to
remove the contaminants. Javanmardian and Palsson (1991) give equation 7 as the
photosynthesis equation for ammonia as the nitrogen source.
0.89CO2 0.6H2O 0.127NH3?0.89C(mol biomass) O2
The mole biomass is assumed to have the formula of C1.0H1.8O0.432N0.143 with a formula
weight of 22.7. Equation 7 shows that 0.11g of ammonia will be required to produce a
gram of algae biomass ((0.127molx17g/mol)/(0.89mol biomass x 22.7g/mol)). Similarly,
the oxygen produced per gram of algae biomass is 1.58g and the carbon dioxide used is
1.93g. ASAE D384.1 shows the ammonia in swine waste to be 290g /-16g per 1000kg of
pig per day. Data from Table 1 of Gallmann et. al. (2002) can be used to derive an
ammonia emission rate of 307g per 1000kg of pig per day for an 42kg pig ((6.0 /-0.37g
NH3/h-LU)x (2LU/1000kg pig)x(24h/d)). The algae required to remove the ammonia from
air is then 27911g/d per 1000kg pig ((307g/1000kg pig/d) /(0.11gammonia/g biomass)). If
the ammonia in the waste is to be used too, the algae production would need to be 5709g/d
per 1000kg ((307 306)/0.11).
Thu May 06 2010 12:49:03 PM by Kumar 6 Photo Bio-reacto

Investment per head

Dear Members,

We have to form a 100 members team. Everyone has to invest $100. we can create a complete commercial model.
For enquires kumar@istudiotech.com

Scope:

1. Genetically re-engineered algae strain
2. low cost and success full PBR design
3. Analysis of strain growth in different cultures
4. Oil extraction from algae
5. Low cost method to convert oil to bio-diesel

for the above mention points we need a huge investment but, if we all invest in the project means we all can gain.

I want to be a men of action not just blah blah...

Members Joined :21

Total Amount Collected: $1200

Tools: 1 PBR
1 Mechanical oil extraction machine
3 Different algae strains

Work in progress:

Genome and 3D structure identification of 3 Major algae strains that is used for bio-diesel.

Chemical properties of the algae strains.

Vital nutrients to grow algae with more lipids.

Complete solution which produces Bio-diesel, Feedstock and chemicals.
Sat May 08 2010 07:57:16 AM by Kumar 8 Investment per head

Team Work - Alage bio-Diesel Production

Dear Members,

Everyone is saying something about alga's here. I want to prove it. We can form like a team and can create a commercially success full model. For that everyone has to invest a little bit amount. Anyone willing to participate.
Thu May 06 2010 07:09:48 AM by Kumar Alage bio-Diesel

Botryococcus braunii

Note: Though B. braunii can be potentially used as a biodiesel feedstock, the processes required are relatively complex when compared to other algae species that are "ready-made" for the biodiesel processing.

Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii, Bb) is one of the most exciting and prized algae species with regards to the potential for production of biofuels. Unlike many other species of algae which require, in some form, the extraction of oil found with the cells, Botryococcus braunii secretes its hydrocarbon oils outside of the cell wall for easy collection. Additionally, up to 86% of its dry weight can be composed of long chain hydrocarbons.
Botryococcene oil, the major oil of B. braunii, is a triterpene, and therefore cannot be easily used to make biodiesel. It can, however, be used to produce many fuels. Most interestingly, it can be directly used as feedstock for hydrocracking in an oil refinery for the creation of standard gasoline (octane), kerosene and diesel.
Wed May 05 2010 09:14:14 AM by Kumar 8 Botryococcene oil

Algae for Womens Immune Response

Astaxanthin decreases a DNA damage biomarker and acute phase protein, and enhances immune response in young healthy females.Plasma astaxanthin increased dose-dependently after four or eight weeks of Implementation. Astaxanthin decreased a DNA damage biomarker after four weeks but did not affect lipid peroxidation.
Wed May 05 2010 09:02:15 AM by Kumar 1 Algae for Womens Immune

Astaxanthi - Antioxidant

Astaxanthin has highly deposited in algae especially microalgae. The species Haematococcus pluvialis is rich in Astaxanthin. Natural Astaxanthin is highly needed in market when compared to synthetic.We can extract it using fermentation. Having goodscope in pharma, cosmetics biomarkers etc.,
Wed May 05 2010 08:57:05 AM by Kumar 4 Haematococcus pluvialis

Better PBR

The design of PBR must have the following parameters.

1. Larger surface area to grow.
2. Closed PBR to prevent contamination
3. Proper supply of co2
4. Enough nutrients for algae
5. Ph regulation
6. Temperature maintenance
7. Even sunlight
8. Horizontal design
9. polyethylene bags
10.Automated flow system

The closed PBR has many advantages than open PBR.

1.Less contamination in closed PBR
2.Monoculture cultivation
3.Ph, temperature & co2 are maintained easily
4.Prevents water evaporation
5.lower carbon dioxide losses
6.Higher cell concentration
7.Less water supply
Tue May 04 2010 09:34:28 AM by Kumar 10 Photo Bio Reactor