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ALGAE IN DARKNESS

The
world’s oceans teem with unicellular algae that carry out
photosynthesis in the sunlight. It has been known for a while that the
particularly abundant diatoms (unicellular algae with a silicate
frustule) are also able to survive in the dark bottom of the ocean,
where neither photosynthesis nor respiration with oxygen is possible.
Scientists of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology now
disclose this artifice of the algae in the journal Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences: In darkness, the diatoms breathe with
nitrate in place of oxygen.
Microalgae
often measure only a few hundredths of a millimeter, but due to their
vast abundance in the world’s oceans they are responsible for about 40%
of the marine primary production, i.e., the biomass production via
carbon dioxide fixation in the sunlight. They often appear as massive
blooms near the sea surface or as greenish-brownish meadows on the sea
floor, if still reached by sunlight. However, diatoms (unicellular algae
with a silicate frustule) are also able to survive in the absence of
sunlight and oxygen, for instance, buried in the sea floor. Anja Kamp,
Dirk de Beer, Jana L. Nitsch, Gaute Lavik, and Peter Stief, scientists
at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen cultivated
several diatom species in the laboratory to explore the metabolic
process that allows the tiny algae to survive in darkness. A correlation
was found between the nitrate that is stored by a diatom cell and its
ability to survive in the absence of sunlight and oxygen. The more
nitrate the cell contained, the longer it could survive in darkness
where the cell does not have the possibility to produce oxygen via
photosynthesis for its own respiration. In experiments with the
coffee-bean-shaped diatom Amphora coffeaeformis, the scientists proved
that diatoms use the nitrate stored in their cells for respiration in
the absence of oxygen. Within just one day, most of the stored nitrate
is used up, converted to ammonium, and excreted by the cell. A key
finding of the Max-Planck scientists was that diatoms use nitrate just
for respiration rather than for biomass production, as would be the case
in sunlight. Anja Kamp says: “The rapid consumption of nitrate and the
absence of biomass production tell us that nitrate respiration in
diatoms is a metabolic process that only serves to prepare the cell for a
resting stage and therefore nitrate respiration is not sustained for
longer time periods.”

In bacteria, nitrate respiration in the absence of oxygen is nothing
exceptional, as many of the bacteria studied at the Max-Planck-Institute
are able to breathe with nitrate, sulfate, or even iron compounds. It
is more spectacular to discover that algae, i.e., organisms with a cell
nucleus, are able carry out both photosynthesis and nitrate respiration,
each under different environmental conditions. These results have just
been published in the renowned interdisciplinary journal Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences.

For more information follow this link: http://idw-online.de/en/news413265
Wed March 16 2011 10:19:50 AM by AlgaeNova 33 algae  |  diatom  |  research  |  marine micobiology

A Response........

Dear Oilgae friends,
first of all an excuse to all the ones that have
written to me and which I have not answered yet. Please forgive me - it
is not that I am lazy - but a project in Africa where we might insatll a
biogas unit with attached algae bio- reactor to capture the CO² - all
that for a cattlefarming/meat production industry to get ridd if former
disturbing an polluting abattoir waste and liquid manure by bio
fermentation, methan gas production for generating electricity and
nutrient rich feed supply with the same (I might give a detailed
discription of these synergies later9, has kept me busy for a long time.

Never
the less do I think it is time to give some examples again how to use
algae other than burning it up to extend the live of fossile
technology...........



Algae as a Source of Pharmaceuticals
& Nutraceuticals


This
article here on OILGAE calls for further information and clarification about
this item.



While microalgae can be
cultivated in PBR`s or ponds, the major part of macro algae usefull for
pharmaceutical and cosmetic  applications
live in the oceans . The biological effectiveness of these medical/cosmetic
compounds on algae basis and their quality strongly depends on their origin,
time of harvest, method of harvest and 
the treatment and conversion. Often used macro algae harvesting methods
are “trawlers” ripping the algae species out of their seabed, but also the
collection of algae material from the beaches and shores after heavy storm is
being practised. Due to the growing demand this methods are neither economical
nor very sustainable – in fact it`s just another violation of natures resources.



This asks for a careful cultivation
method that takes nature and the preservation of biodiversity into
consideration. Here I would like to describe a macro algae cultivation method
for the species Saccharina
latissima
syn. Laminaria saccharina.



For the
culturing and easy harvest of Laminaria it is the best method to get the spores
of this algae specie onto a culturing rope. This happens in specially designed
pools where pieces of 1000 meters rope are being  prepared for so to be set out in open
seawater. Artificial nutrients are not welcome and not necessary as these pools
are being floated with fresh seawater. During this process the temperature has
to be cooled down to under 18 degrees (for this type- Laminaria).



Marine
algae reproduce similar to ferns or fungi by spores. This approach will help to
settle the spores onto the culturing ropes to develop the algae body of the
leaf-like “Phylloid”, the stem-like “Cauloid” and the root-like “Rhiozid”.



At the
junction between Cauloid and Phylloid there is a regenerative zone, the
“Meristem” which enables the algae to grow again after the algae has being cut
of or died off. When harvesting it is therefore important to cut off the algae
above this regenerative zone. If all the growing ropes are taking in – again
new lines have to be prepared according to above giving procedure.



Extractable compounds:



These macro algae are rich
on vitamins, minerals and trace elements which the algae accumulates in form of
a great number of different polysaccharides from the
ocean waters and thus making them available for a great number of
health/healthcare products. Beside calcium, magnesium, iron and potassium they
contain trace elements like iodine, cobber, zinc, selenium as well as
manganese, strontium, molybdenum and germanium. This wide range of vitamins
includes beside the vitamins A, C and E, niacin and folic acid the whole
vitamin B-complex including the vitamin B-12 which otherwise is only present in
animal products. All these components are important for our immune defence but
also for the skin, the hair and nails and the connective tissue.



High-grade unsaturated fatty acids:



Algae are the only
source  for eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA) and docosahexaenoic
acid
(DHA) which are elsewhere only present in fish oil because they are
accumulated through their food chain. These seldom
 omega-3 fatty acids
are among others extremely important fort the membrane stability especially of
the skin.



Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA)

Some of  the algae, but as well other organisms are
building mycosporine
like amino acids (MAA), UV-light absorbing substances (see former article
>>> Light Management!) serving as “natural sunscreen”. They are
absorbing shortwave sun rays und convert them into harmless heat.



Polysaccharides:



Of special significance for
the cosmetic industry are the outstanding polysaccharides which are present in
different types of algae, performable in 
red- and brown macro algae. Here we can name the alginic acids and their
salts, - alginate, carrageenan as well as fucoidan, glucans, fucose and other,
partly yet unknown algae sugars.



a. alginic acids and alginate:



Brown algae contain as a
characteristic compound of their cell walls mainly phycocolloid fucoidan and
alginate, salts of alginic acids. The alginate contents depends on specie and
which season of the year and can be between 15 – 40% of the dry-weight. For the
production of alginate compounds only the few sort from the genus Laminariales
(specie Saccharina) and Fucales (specie Fucus) are in use today. Worldwide
yearly production of alginate is approx. 40.000 tonnes. The greatest producers
are the
USA, France, Norway, Great Britain, Canada, Japan and China.



Alginic acid ( INCI-term:
ALGIN) is a mixture from polyuronic acids with changing amounts
of 1,4-ß-D-mannuronic acid and
1,4-
α-L-guluronic acid. In relation to the
dry-weight alginic acid  contains a
minimum of 19%, the most 25% carboxyl groups, whereby as small
part can be neutralized. The alginate molecules are placed as tight packed
strands in the cell-walls, whereby the carboxylate groups from uronic acids are
tied together by bivalent cations as there are Ca²+ and Mg²+ as well as other
trace elements. The molecular mass of native alginic acid lies between 150.000
and 250.000 Da. During the isolation process a degradation takes place that can
lead to a molecule mass between 30.000 and 60.000 Da. This very different
relation of the molecular strands has great influence on the viscosity quality
of the final product.



Not only
in the cosmetic industry, also in other areas, as there is the food-industry,
pharmaceutical industry and the medicine, alginic acids and their salts are
being used for theit characteristic   sol
– and gel properties, their emulsion and suspension stabilising effect as well
as their film forming ability and for the cation exchange (
quantity of positively charged ions
(cations).



Some
products are: Sodium alginate
- calcium salt mixtures for dental impression materials
and also calcium alginate is being used as absorbent material for interactive
wound dressing, sodium alginate in  spray
plasters and wound dressings. The wound material has a styptic and curing
effect as a “hämostypticum” as it immediately forms, when in contact with blood
and its Ca²+ content, a membrane of unsolvable calcium alginate serving as
protective colloid, sealing the wound.



b. Carrageen and carragenane:



Carrageene
(INCI: CARRAGENAN)  is an umbrella term
for a number of different polysaccharides produced by special macro red algae
species. Different organic compounds are distinguished  by their amount of  galactose and 3-anhydrogalactose as well
as their number of sulphate groups. Of interest for industrial use are premolar
κ-, І- und λ-Carrageen, which all are different in their physicochemical characteristics. Also offered under the product name
Carrageenane are commercial products with very different solution – and gel
forming characteristics. These are mostly alkali treated carrageen or extracts
or extracts fractions. Carragen finds its use in the food industry as gelling-
and thickening agent. The cosmetic industry uses it for the production of
toothpaste. Presently production culture of different red-algae species is going
on in the
Philippines, whereby it has
been achieved to produce homogenous and commercial interesting types of
carrageen.



c. ß-1,3-glucane



This polysaccharide from
algae shows in a great number of trials immune activating qualities
(macrophages) and are therefore being used for the treatment of cancer. In
particular  phycarin stimulates the  humoral and cellulare  immune response through an inter-action with
CD11b / CD18 receptors.  The
anti-inflammatory effect of phycarin  is
attributable to the p-selectine inhibition, whereby the molecular size and the
degree of sulfation  are of great
importance. Luminaran, the storage substance of the brown-algae belongs as well
to the important β-1,3- glucanes, showing heparin- like characteristics and
stimulates the immune system as well.



d) fucoidan



 



The
phycocolloide fucoidane is
typical for the brown algae and only produced by them. Neither in other algae
species, nor in other plants has this phycocolloide been detected. According to
the IUPAC definition are sulphated fucanes polysaccharides, mainly
consisting of sulphated L-fucose (6-Deoxy-L-Galactose) containing less than 10%
of other monosaccharides. Structural research has shown that fucoidane is not a
homogenous  class of substance, but with
great difference in terms of  molecular
masses, grade of sulfation as well as its pattern. There are as well a number
of variations in the glycosidic fixations and the sugar composition. Typical
structural feature are
α-1,4-linked
L-Fucose-4-O-sulfat-units, which are ramified in position 2, acetylated or
substituted with a second sulphate group. Beside all this there are also
α-1,4- and α-1,2-linkrd fucose compositions with or without
a sulphate group or a ramification.



 



Fucoidane
became more and more of interest for science in these last years for their
great variety of pharmacological properties. Anti-coagulation, antithrombotic activity, carcinostatic and immune
modulating properties,
enormous antioxidative
effect, reduction of blood fat values, the anti-complement
activity and anti-inflammatory
effects. Of further interest in all this
combination is a distinctive antiviral activity such as
herpes viruses as well. The use of fucoidane for cosmetics is based on research
about the effects on certain main requirements.



A stimulating effect of low-molecular fucoinade on the collagen
synthesis was verified and the anti-aging-effect are explained to be the result
of a reduction of skin thickness due to the use of extracts containing aqueous
fucoidane containing solutions which also enhance the elasticity of the skin.



 



e. Oligo- and polysaccharide rich
with fucose (FROP)



These fucose-rich polymeric carbohydrate structures are playing their role
in cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix junctions. They stimulate the cell proliferation. Suppressing 
the  metallo- protein matrix (MMP)
and stimulating the collagen and elastin
synthesis in fibroblasts increases
the  elasticity of the skin
and connective tissue and influence the aging effect.


Publications about the extractable compounds of Laminaria:

Pubmed  All publication can be found on Pubmed.

Aguilera J., Dummermuth A., Karsten u.,
Schriek R., Wiencke Ch.
(2002) Enzymatic defences against photooxidative
stress induced by ultraviolet radiation in Arctic marine macroalgae
, Polar
biology 2002, vol. 25, no 6, pp. 432-441





Aquaron R., Delange F., Marchal P., Lognoné V., Ninane L. (2002) Bioavailability
of seaweed iodine in human beings
., Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002
Jul;48(5):563-9



As an
important fraction of consumers in the world prefers natural products over
artificial ones, we investigated the industrial feasibility of naturally
iodized salt using seaweed as source of iodine.
 



Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und
Lebensmittelsicherheit, Untersuchungsergebnisse 2008: Jod- und
Schwermetallgehalte in algenhaltigen Kosmetika
 



Bilan M.I.,
Grachev A.A., Shashkov A.S., Kelly M., Sanderson C.J., Nifantiev N.E., Usov
A.I. (2010) Further studies on the composition and structure of a fucoidan
preparation from the brown alga Saccharina latissima.
, Carbohydr Res. Vol.
345(14):2038-47.



In
accordance with the previous data, the main polysaccharide component was shown
to be a fucan sulfate [...]. In addition, three other types of sulfated
polysaccharide molecules were detected in the total fucoidan preparation [...].
 



Brunschweiger E.-M., Pharmakologische
Wirkung von Meerwasser
, in: Schleswig-Holsteinisches Ärzteblatt 6/2005, S.
68-72



Bundesamt für Risikobewertung (BfR), Gesundheitliche
Risiken durch zu hohen Jodgehalt in getrockneten Algen
, aktualisierte
Stellungnahme Nr. 026/2007 des BfR vom 22. Juni 2004



Bund/Länder-Messprogramm Meeresumwelt (BLMP),
2005: Zustandsbericht 1999–2002 für Nordsee und Ostsee 



Croci D.O., Cumashi A., Ushakova N.A.,
Preobrazhenskaya M.E., Piccoli A., Totani L., Ustyuzhanina N.E., Bilan M.I.,
Usov A.I., Grachev A.A., Morozevich G.E., Berman A.E., Sanderson C.J., Kelly
M., Di Gregorio P., Rossi C., Tinari N., Iacobelli S., Rabinovich G.A.,
Nifantiev N.E. (2011) Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the
Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria
saccharina Brown Seaweed.
, PLoS One. 6(2):e17283.



Thus,
sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory,
anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated
polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed.
 



Cumashi A,
Ushakova NA, Preobrazhenskaya ME, D'Incecco A, Piccoli A, Totani L, Tinari N,
Morozevich GE, Berman AE, Bilan MI, Usov AI, Ustyuzhanina NE, Grachev AA,
Sanderson CJ, Kelly M, Rabinovich GA, Iacobelli S, Nifantiev NE (2007) A
comparative study of the anti-in
ammatory,
anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antiadhesive activities of nine different
fucoidans from brown seaweeds
., Glycobiology vol. 17 no. 5 pp. 541–552



All
fucoidans inhibited leucocyte recruitment in an inflammation model in rats, and
neither the content of fucose and sulfate nor other structural features of
their polysaccharide backbones significantly affected the efficacy of fucoidans
in this model.



Davis T.A.,
Voleskya B., Mucci A. (2003) A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal
biosorption by brown algae
., Water Research 37 (2003) 4311–4330



More
specifically, it is the properties of cell wall constituents, such as alginate
and fucoidan, which are chiefly responsible for heavy metal chelation.



Dawczynski
Ch., Schubert R., Jahreis G. (2006) Amino acids, fatty acids, and diatary
fible in edible seaweed products
, Food Chemistry 103 (2007) 891-899



Interestingly,
the FA distribution of seaweed products showed high levels of n-3 FA and
demonstrated a nutritionally ideal n-6/n-3 FA ratio. The predominante FA in
various seaweed products was eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5,n-3) which was at
concentrations as high as 50% of total FA content.



Dawczynski
C., Schäfer U., Leiterer M., Jahreis G. (2007) Nutritional and toxicological
importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products
.,
J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12;55(25):10470-5



 



Douady D.,
Rousseau B., Caron L. (1994) Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting
complexes of Laminaria saccharina: partial amino acid sequences and
arrangement in thylakoid membranes
., Biochemistry. 1994 Mar
22;33(11):3165-70



Drozd N.N.,
Tolstenkov A.S., Makarov V.A., Kuznetsova T.A., Besednova N.N., Shevchenko
N.M., Zvyagintseva T.N. (2006) Pharmacodynamic parameters of anticoagulants
based on sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae
., Bull Exp Biol Med.
2006 Nov;142(5):591-3



Fodil-Bourahla
I, Bizbiz L, Schoevaert D, Robert AM, Robert L. (2003) Effect of L-fucose
and fucose-rich oligo- and polysaccharides (FROP-s) on skin aging: penetration,
skin tissue production and fibrillogenesis
., Biomed Pharmacother. 2003
Jul-Aug;57(5-6):209-15



These
results, together with the previous favorable activities on the downregulation
of matrix-degrading enzymes, free radical scavenging and increased cell
proliferation confirm the favorable action of fucose and fucose-rich
polysaccharides (FROP-s) on the skin by slowing down its aging.



Fujimura
T., Tsukahara K., Moriwaki S., Kitahara T., Sano T., Takema Y. (2002) Treatment
of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus chanoes its thickness and
mechanical properties
, J. Cosmet. Sci., 53, 1-9



In this
study, they investigated the effects of topical application of an aqueous
extract of this alga on the thickness and the mechanical properties of human
skin. [...] These results suggest that the Fucm vesiculosus extract possesses
anti-aging activities and should be useful for a variety of cosmetics.



Guiry M.D.
and Blunden G. (1991) Seaweed Ressources in
Europe: Uses and Potential



Han J.,
Kang S., Choue R., Kim H., Leem K., Chung S., Kim C., Chung J. (2002) Free
radical scavenging effect of Diospyros kaki, Laminaria japonica and Undaria
pinnatifida., Fitoterapia
. 2002 Dec;73(7-8):710-2



Isnard N,
Fodil-Bourahla I, Robert AM, Robert L. (2004) Pharmacology of skin aging.
Stimulation of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis by L-fucose and fucose-rich
polysaccharides, effect of in vitro aging of fibroblasts
., Biomed
Pharmacother. 2004 Apr;58(3):202-4



These
stimulations of GAG-biosynthesis might play a role in the increase of total
skin thickness of hairless rats treated with L-fucose, as well as in several
other favorable results recorded for FROP-3 such as the increased hydration
(resistance to pressure) and elasticity of human skin



Jin D.Q.,
Li G., Kim J.S., Yong C.S., Kim J.A., Huh K. (2004) Preventive effects of
Laminaria japonica aqueous extract on the oxidative stress and xanthine oxidase
activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver
., Biol Pharm Bull.
2004 Jul;27(7):1037-40



The
results suggest that Laminaria japonica would be of great value in preventing
hyper-glycemia in diabetes mellitus as a dietary supplement possibly, through
its antioxidant activity.



Kim K.H.,
Kim Y.W., Kim H.B., Lee B.J., Lee D.S. (2006) Anti-apoptotic activity of
laminarin polysaccharides and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides
from Laminaria japonica
., Biotechnol Lett. 2006 Mar;28(6):439-46



These
results suggest that laminarin oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be
utilized to develop new immunopotentiating substances and functional
alternative medicines.



Küpper
F.C., Carpenter L.J., McFiggans G.B., Palmer C.J., Waite T.J., Boneberg E.M.,
Woitsch S., Weiller M., Abela R., Grolimund D., Potin P., Butler A., Luther
G.W. 3rd, Kroneck P.M., Meyer-Klaucke W., Feiters M.C. (2008) Iodide
accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric
chemistry.
, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13;105(19):6954-8



Using
x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide,
which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose
here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to
be described in a living system. ... In a complementary set of experiments
using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in
human blood cells.



Li N, Zhang
Q, Song J (2005) Toxicological evaluation of fucoidan extracted from
Laminaria japonica in Wistar rats
., Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Mar;
43(3):421-6



The
results showed that no significant toxicological changes were observed when
300 mg/kg body weight per day fucoidan was administered to rats.



Neyrinck
A.M., Mouson A.,
Delzenne N.M. (2007) Dietary
supplementation with laminarin, a fermentable marine beta (1-3) glucan,
protects against hepatotoxicity induced by LPS in rat by modulating immune
response in the hepatic tissue.
, Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Dec
5;7(12):1497-506 , Comment in: Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Mar;8(3):514-5;
discussion 516-7



Nishide E.,
Anzai H., Uchida N. and Nisizawa K. (1990) Sugar constituents of
fucose-containing polysaccharides from various Japanese brown algae
., Hydrobiologia
Vol. 204-205, No. 1



Passaquet
C., Thomas J.C., Caron L., Hauswirth N., Puel F., Berkaloff C. (1991) Light-harvesting
complexes of brown algae. Biochemical characterization and immunological
relationships.
, FEBS Lett. 1991 Mar 11;280(1):21-6



 



Péterszegi
G, Robert AM, Robert L. (2003) Protection by L-fucose and fucose-rich
polysaccharides against ROS-produced cell death in presence of ascorbate
.,
Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 May-Jun;57(3-4):130-3



It
appeared that relatively low concentrations of L-fucose and FROP-3 (Biomed.
Pharmacother. in press) could efficiently protect fibroblasts from the
ascorbate-induced cell-death. These novel pharmacological properties of
L-fucose and FROP-3 might well be related to their accelerating effect of wound
healing.



Robert L,
Fodil-Bourahla I, Bizbiz L, Robert AM. (2004) Effect of L-fucose and
fucose-rich polysaccharides on elastin biosynthesis, in vivo and in vitro
.,
Biomed Pharmacother. 2004 Mar;58(2):123-8



These
results show that L-fucose and FROP-3 stimulate tropoelastin biosynthesis in
vitro, and elastic fibre formation in vivo.



Sánchez-Machado
D.I., López-Hernández J., Paseiro-Losada P., López-Cervantes J. (2004) An
HPLC method for the quantification of sterols in edible seaweeds
., Biomed
Chromatogr. 2004 Apr;18(3):183-90



The
predominant sterol was fucosterol in brown seaweeds (83-97% of total sterol
content)



Senni K.,
Gueniche F., Foucault-Bertaud A., Igondjo-Tchen S., Fioretti F.,
Colliec-Jouault S., Durand P., Guezennec J., Godeau G., Letourneur D. (2006) Fucoidan
a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae is a potent modulator of connective
tissue proteolysis
., Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Jan 1;445(1):56-64.



Using
tissue sections of human skin in ex vivo experiments, we evidenced that this
polysaccharide was able to minimize human leukocyte elastase activity resulting
in the protection of human skin elastic fiber network against the enzymatic
proteolysis due to this serine proteinase.



Stengel
D.B., Macken A., Morrison L., Morley N. (2004) Zinc concentrations in marine
macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic
grouping, habitat and morphology
., Mar Pollut Bull. 2004 May;48(9-10):902-9



Sugawara
T., Matsubara K., Akagi R., Mori M., Hirata T. (2006) Antiangiogenic
activity of brown algae fucoxanthin and its deacetylated product, fucoxanthinol
.,
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9805-10



Usov A.I.
; Smirnova g.p. ; Bilan M.I. ; Shashkov A.S. (1998) Polysaccharides
of Algae. 53. Brown Alga Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lam. as a Source
of Fucoidan
, Russ J Bioorgan Chem (1998) 24:437–445.



Fucoidan
was found to contain L-fucose and sulfate as major components and galactose,
xylose, and glucuronic acid as minor components.



Voronova Y.G.,
Rekhina N.I., Nikolaeva T.A., Tiunova N.A., Zailina I.V.,
Kobzeva N.YA., Valiente O. (2006) Extraction of carbohydrates from
Laminaria and their utilization
, Journal of Applied Phycology (2006) Vol.
3, No. 3



Wang J.,
Zhang Q., Zhang Z., Li Z. (2008) Antioxidant activity of sulfated
polysaccharide fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica.
, Int J Biol
Macromol. 2008 Mar 1;42(2):127-32



The
correlation between the sulfate content and scavenging superoxide radical
ability was positive. Available data obtained with in vitro models suggested
that the ratio of sulfate content/fucose was an effective indicator to
antioxidant activity of the samples.



Xue Chang-Hu,
Yu Fang, Hong Lin, Lei Chen, Li Zhao-Jie, Deng Deng, Lu Chong-Xiao
(2001) Chemical characters and antioxidative properties of sulfated
polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica,
Journal of Applied Phycology
(2001) Vol. 13, No. 1



Yan X.,
Zheng L., Chen H., Lin W., Zhang W. (2004) Enriched accumulation and
biotransformation of selenium in the edible seaweed Laminaria japonica
., J
Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 20;52(21):6460-4



This
implied that kelp L. japonica could effectively transform inorganic selenium
into organic selenium through metabolism.



Yuan Y.V.,
Walsh N.A. (2006) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracts
from a variety of edible seaweeds
, Food and Chemical Toxicology 44 (2006)
1144-1150



Zvyagintseva
T.N., Shevchenko N.M., Nazarova I.V., Scobun A.S., Luk'yanov P.A., Elyakova
L.A. (2000) Inhibition of complement activation by water-soluble
polysaccharides of some far-eastern brown seaweeds
., Comp Biochem Physiol C
Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;126(3):209-15

Tue March 15 2011 04:22:27 PM by AlgaeNova 3 Macroalgae

More Lightmanagement

Hallo Oilgae friends,

just in another group "Algae to Growdiesel" the following question popped up:


How many photons does it
take to make one gram of Nannochloropsis Oculata in an optimal concentration
PBR setting?


A tricky
question!? Yes indeed, and after the experience we made can this only be soled
with practical experience.



 



The light
used for the cultivation of phototrophic micro-organisms has to be in the
spectral range of ~, 400 to 700 nm to activate the photosynthesis pigments
[Heath, in 1972; Lawlor, in 1992]. An optimum irradiation strength (number of photons
per surface needed and time [μE m-2 s-1], the photo synthetic photon flux density (PPFD) is different from specie to
specie and can be derived from the light saturation curve.



Below
minimum irradiation strength a photosynthetic driven micro-organism will use
more energy for his (preservation) metabolism than it could get from the
irradiated light (measurable photosynthesis rate and total oxygen balance
negative).



The minimum
necessary irradiation strength for a measurable positive photosynthesis rate
will show in the light saturation curve and be market as light compensation
point [Goldmann, in 1979; Kohl and Nicklisch, in 1988]. A growing PPFD rate will result in the production
of oxygen until it reaches a constant maximum level of oxygen saturation. In
the linear area of the light saturation curve every photon will be
photo-chemical absorbed by photosynthesis pigments thus enabling the
photosynthesis process. The photon exploitation at this level is at its maximum
(maximum quantum yield); however, the growth rate of photosynthesis-active
organisms is limited due to low a light intensity. We are now in the transition
area of the light saturation curve when the photosynthesis rate is at its
highest level but the amount of photons used for the photosynthesis are at a
minimum. The light saturation is based on the limited reaction rate of
plastoquinone or the oxidation of NADPH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate) molecules in the Calvin cycle [Matthijs et al., 1996]. A part of the
electrons animated in the PS II (photo synthesis system II/Calvin curve) can
not be used, but this energy is being converted into warmth and fluorescence. Raising
the light intensity may now result in a photo inhibition (reducing the photosynthesis
rate) and may destroy photosynthesis receptors, light-absorbent pigments and
the thylakoid membran [Hopkin



and H?ner,
in 2004].



The density
of cells during cultivation will lead to an increasing shading effect which
will have to be compensated by an adjustment of light entry. As a result this limitation
of light during the growths will not leave enough protons available for an
optimal supply. Contradictory too much light entry in the beginning of cell
cultivation would cause cell damage (photo inhibition). Another parameter which
influences the light entry is the upper surfaces /



Volume
(A/V) - relation of the photo bioreactor.



A
homogeneous irradiation of all cells combined with an ideal A/V-relation, this
in connection with a sufficient mixing would prevent a continuous change of
light conditions from the unlit centre of the reactor to the illuminated
surface.



 



If light is so vitally important for algae, - as much as too much light is
damaging, - just how much light do we need for algae breeding in a PBR system?




And what can we learn from all this?

They need light, off course, but are shy of direct solar
radiation. How can we measure how much light? We use a patented Model-Reactor
(Pat.Nr. 202007013 401.1) with an LED light source to find out the optimum
growth level of algae species. Here we can simulate the light conditions of
Germany, Spain, Australia or even India. Also different
nutrition requirements can be tested. It has shown for us that here in
Central Europe only 10% of
solar radiation is necessary to achieve an optimum growth rate. Thus algae
cells are converting 5% of the given light into bio energy (something that i.e.
the sugar cane can only do with 1% effectiveness). We are able to boost the
productivity of algae up to 100 gram per m? per day with this method of finding
the right specie. But we even learned more. In a compact algae culture which is
mixed up by streaming water, some algae will come into the (light) surface,
some will return into the dark. From the view of an algae cell it might appear
as if the light is flickering. This Disco-light effect was researched as well.
Surprisingly the algae liked it very much! They are able to store the captured
light and will use it later, in the dark, for their growth.



 



So how could you measure your light intensity compared to what you have as
equipment (type of reactor), and to find out with the help of a light saturation
curve just how much light you may need (that you will be able to find out just
how much photons you may need per cell I may have the freedom not to believe?..
this was a joke, wasn?t it?) for optimum growth.



You would need a good photo meter (Quantum Sensor to measure photo
synthetically active radiation (PAR ? LI-COR Biosiences) and at least
6 til 12 month time to go through all possible light conditions
with your PBR. Good Luck!



You may see the ?Specification ?bio reactor? which you will find on my
profile. You may notice that we are working with a continuous harvesting system
that gives an excellent control over the cell density in our reactor model. Thus
we can keep productivity high do not have to stress with light limitation
factors through shading. And we work with greenhouses, - not only because
of  our northern
Europe climate! ? no,
we even shade our cultures up here in the north.. Andreas-Algae Nova



NB. Just one little question I have, - if you have an optimal PBR setting, why do you want to count photons?
It`s a waste of time than.......
Fri October 08 2010 02:59:29 PM by AlgaeNova 4 photons  |  light  |  cell cultures  |  PBR  |  photosynthesis

The Chesapeake Algae Project

Today I
received my newsletter from the algaeindustrymagazine.com with this report:



The
Chesapeake Algae Project brings together W&M scientists and their partners
to figure out how to use algae to generate bio fuel while cleaning polluted
waters...



And could
watch the video clip of all the efforts being made to re-establish a eutrophied
lake. After having watched this, seeing all the earnest and engaged scientists
and experts I had to smile a little bit remembering the German saying. -Viele
Koeche verderben den Brei-  which means when you translate it - Too many cooks
will spoil the dinner.

What is it
this people want to achieve? Turn a lake into an algae pond or do they want the lake back as it was, a healthy water with all aquatic live in a natural balance
?



If they
start harvesting the algae from the lake to make a business out of the
biomasses (this is said to be the goal), than they have to keep the algae
growing or the productivity will decrease throughout this process, - meaning
they have to keep on fertilizing the waters. Not all the fishes in this waters
will feed on algae, meaning you can count on a loss in biodiversity. The way
they are harvesting the algae, - and I can see no other way to do it either, - is
skimming of the algae with some sort of sieve or screen but with this method
you will also remove all kinds of phytoplankton and zooplankton which results
in even more loss of species and in destroying the natural habitat even more.A clear
statement in this video clip was made that all the efforts to clean this lake
should be made economical feasible?- in my understanding this means Good
by lake, youll become now a huge algae breeding pond.



This is the
most complicated attempt to clean a polluted lake and the final gaol is not to
bring back the natural balance, but to trim it for productivity by mono
culturing.



?We help
nature to help us? this is what Mr. Sampath Kumar, the inventor of NUALGI once
wrote to me. And Mr. Bhaskar (a member of this community!), who stands for the
marketing of NUALGI will be able to confirm this -  there is a simple but very effective way to
clean up such waters that are so heavily eutrophied and to restore the natural
balance ? simply use diatoms! Inspired by the ingenious invention I have made a
presentation to demonstrate the astonishing simple method to clean up with algae
bloom and eutrophication:



 http://www.behance.net/gallery/DIATOM/632929



I am the
last one who is against the use of algae biomasses for economical use of all
kind, - even for bio fuel, but such a production should only be in a controllable
environment and not in natural waters. For gods sake, - leave nature alone. We
have exploited already too much of it, destroyed and polluted we should care
for the rest we still have. If this Chesapeake Algae Project serves as an
example of how to use natural waters for the production of algae biomasses, others will come to do it likewise. All with the argument that it is an economical
way to produce environmental friendly BIO FUEL, - and than good night to natural
lakes. It is so much cheaper to fertilize a lake causing artificial algae
bloom, than skimming off the algae (and with it all other form of plankton)
than having to run an open pond system or even a photo bio reactor. It is like
burning down rainforest to plant oil-palms, sugar cane or jatropa nuts, - its
nuts!

Wed September 29 2010 10:59:43 AM by AlgaeNova 2 natural lakes  |  Waste Water  |  diatom  |  alge bloom  |  Chesapeake Algae project

Exxon Sinks $600M Into Algae-Based Biofuels

Hallo Oilgae friends,
sorry that I haven`t reached to answer all the quesdtions from the last articel (blog?). You know my short answers and I am a little busy at time, - but weekend comes and the weather looks to bad to go sailing...........
 Well now, - today it will be a little quizzical!
I will send you
(a) first the link to these press announcement:
http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/07/14/14greenwire-exxon-sinks-600m-into-algae-based-biofuels-in-33562.html

(b) than I want you to watch these pictures of Synthetic Genomics "new" algae technology and I would like you to  put your attention to their ingenious photo bioreactor system in greenhouses and a good look at these V-bag systems!
http://gigaom.com/cleantech/photos-exxon-synthetic-genomics-open-algae-test-facility/

(c) Than please take a look at our system:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/29775087/Specification-Bio-Reactor

And now tell me what difference you can see.
I will give you a tip (watchthecolour).

This has been tried before by Green Fuel Inc. - try to find them on the net...........
Thu September 16 2010 12:38:53 PM by AlgaeNova 1

ALGAE FOR FOOD

Triggered by the post: "The Linux model...."  I will participate with a short overview the way we at Algae Nova are handling this wonderful possibility to use algae sensible.
Again this is a digest of our groups strategy and our mission and our visions. for the future.
For all those who are intersted in getting some views how to use algae in this sence it might be informative, - I hope.......

 



The positive constitutional
effect of algae on vertebrates is already well known. The reasons for this
health-stimulating effects of micro-algae are to be seen in the biological
combination, the complexity and synergy of the active natural substances.
Vitamins, fatty acids and minerals stabilize the metabolism and
cardiovascular system, antioxidant complexes
prevent cell damages from free radicals. Dietary fibre, roughage, - like
polysaccharide (
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrat structures) stimulate the immune defence. Aqueous, ethanolic extracts are
creating a resistance against tumor and other mutagenic disorders.



With chickens i.e. an
admixture of chlorella algae raised the phagozytical activity (
Phagocytosis is involved in the
acquisition of nutrients for some cells)
. Feeding pigs with algae
biomass brought a reduction of the cholesterol level and the accession of
monocytes (
white blood cells), thus increasing unspecific
immunity and improving the stress capacity.



In addition to all this an
improvement of the meat quality regarding the colour and the water bonding
ability was achieved.



Feeding fish with algae
resulted in faster growth and better feed utilisation and a better physiological
state, better protein assimilation and improved metabolism, better stress
capacity and convalescence. 



With
feedings to rabbit and laying hens in certificated breeding companies positive
effects on this animals could be proven. With laying hens it was determined that
_ the supply of 1% of alga mass in the regular feed raised the egg laying rate.



Instead
of 37 eggs per 100 chickens in the control group the chickens fed with algae
laid 61 eggs. At the same time the bowl stability increased what led to a reduced
number in crease eggs.



A company
in
Brandenburg
named Aquaflor is using algae substrates for cosmetics, food (noodles, chips)
and nutrition products for diets and well-being in general.



For
all this reasons the company will appear on the market with an algae mass
production, with the aim to serve chosen buyers 
with algae biomasses for animal feed applications in general and for
fish feed especially. Fish feed we will need for the re-naturalisation project
of the adjoining artificial lake district in combination with an aqua farming
project directly. So right from the start core business will be to fulfil a
secured contract of 2000 t of alga dry mass at a fixed kilo price.
The buyer of these
lot takes the algae biomass as it is and stands for the refinement alone. By
doing this an achieved turnover of 22 Mio. ? is protected for the refinancing
of the invests and it will already raise the companies business economics into
the profit zone.



For
further
business, negotiations take place with the animal feed
manufacturers Zschornack and Aqua Aller from
Denmark. Here  we received clear signals to
purchase biomass as well as other valuable materials from algae. The company
Aqua Aller even considers a research participation in the project , with the
subject "Water plant production". Both momentary business partner are
limited in decision benefits because of the current
legislation of the animal feed order in
Germany. But these provisions are going to be altered
in accordance with the possibilities theses new aqua farming technologies are
offering.



There are other food
production companies in the area
Saxony that are using algae as food supplement in their products. The company -NEUKIRCHNER ZWIEBACK- (Zwieback is a German type of -short bread- and quite
popular) in Chemnitz uses already algae in some of their products, but have
some annoying experience with algae biomasses from overseas open pond systems
that did influence the products towards a somewhat ?fishy? taste. Samples from
Micro algae breed in bioreactors have convinced the company that this is not
the case with algae from a controlled production.



Now already, with this few
customers would the production capacity of 2000 to/y be exhausted. Even though
negotiations with other potential clients are going on. The experience to be
gained with this already proven reactor system is the mass production and the
production on demand for a steady growing market asking top quality base
products. Open pond systems can never compete in quality with the closed
bioreactor system, neither in growth rate of the algae species. Just one bird
flying over an open pond leaving his droplets behind can pollute the entire
pond. And there are other species, micro-organism and daphnia too that are not
to be separated from the biomasses when harvested. In the Spirulina biomasses
from a big company on
Hawaii operating huge pond systems even cadmium was found.



Simultaneously with our modest
entrance into algae production we will still have the aim to gradually enlarge
our product range and to co-operate on a national , as well as international
level.



  • Food supplement means / functional food
  • Feed additions


  • Cosmetics / wellness.


  • Living feed production


  • pure biomass production


  • hydrogen production


Participation with the network
?Angewandte Bioproduktion Lausitz? (Applied bio production Lausitz) will result
in finding other producers and in connection with this task even create some
new products.



Dietary supplement
(health-supporting food with microalgae)



  • Bread, noodles
  • Bread rolls
  • Waffles, rusk, biscuits
  • Yoghurt
  • Raw material delivery for pasta
  • Snacks, muesli bolt
  • Beer


Special feed with microalgae
(feed additions)



  • special feed mixture for
    chick and young hens
  • special feed mixture for
    drawer
  • special feed mixture for
    maturing fish
  • special feed mixture for
    domestic animals (pet-food)
  • special feed mixture for koi
    carp and other special directions
  • high carotinoid mixture for
    certain zoo animals


Cosmetics / wellness



The concrete
regional and national problem definitions for it are being discussed and
compiled by the members of the network of ?Applied bioproduction Lausitz? in
their teams:



1.
production of microalgae in photo biology reactors and their deployment

2.
deployment of microalgae in the food and cosmetic industry



Application tests in medical equipment
with microalgae



  • flushing tests of mercury
    (amalgam) with Chlorella vulgaris
  • application tests with
    Spirulina platensis to patient (immune weakness) for the rise of the immune defence.
  • AA





Wed September 15 2010 12:40:02 PM by AlgaeNova 9

THE ALGAE DREAM (1)

Hallo all my dear Oilgae friends,
Today and finally I have found a little time again to create a small text again. This is a little something that might not be appreciated by quite a few people here ? but it has to be said and I am not claiming that I am right! But I rather look forward to some good answers and reflections about this problem I have with the algae to bio fuel concept.
Basically when starting to discuss bio fuels we are always turning our thoughts around one thing ? how can we provide enough petrol for our cars and transportation systems once the crude oil is out or prices are to high for a broad majority to be on the move. Nobody ever discusses the god old combustion engine, or the insane use in the northern hemisphere of our globe to use oil for heating or producing electricity or plastics. Believe it or not but fact is that the combustion engine, invented and brought into a workable state 1893 by Rudolf Diesel, is 117 years old. This principle has been changed a lot throughout the years and has been developed into a highly efficient technology, equipped with all kinds of electronic gimmicks around it. But the basics remained the same and it is still burning up important resources and it is still polluting the environment. It is time for a change. But what should come instead!? Well this is actually nothing I tend to discuss here ? the main question I have is, - should we, and can we go on to feed this antique and risking by doing that, to crate even more disorder while building up an exaggerated supply system that might endanger more than it is useful.
Here now I copied a reply which I have given in Linkedin in the community group ALGAE TO GROWDIESEL. Since everything that has to do with algae breeding for bio fuel is widely discussed by a number of members in this group, no one of these participants seemed to take any notice of this ?heretical? inlay. This made me wonder. I have waited for a fierce argumentation to prove I am wrong. I am probably not right either. But from all I know up till now it doesn?t look good for algae, nor for any other biomass to fuel concept so far. But let us see what you come up with????.

Question in Linkedin/Group- Algae to Growdiesel:

Does anyone have Algae Biofuels Production Technologies Worldwide Report? I will be really thankful if someone can share the document with me. I want to study the report for educational purpose


Answer:
Hallo Mr. Kumar,
I guess you can give up your efforts. Every day just another group, or firm or person pops up and loudly claiming unbelievable things about how the world could be saved by producing bio fuels from algae. Off course it works, - and there is no doubt about it. But it is a "niche-product" and this it will stay. And such a list want last very long I am afraid. There will be a number of upspring that just will vanish, and this time very quietly.
I start to get a little bit annoyed about the persistence from the players of the algae-bio fuel front, which might be true believers (this I will give some of them!), neglecting some vital facts about what kind of masses really are necessary to fire up our transportation system and the good old combustion engine, - and this nationwide? or even world wide?
I really think there are quite a few among those actors who are only in this game to skim the market for investors or subvention money - this here reminds also a little bit like 2001 when the "New Market" collapsed. A number of investors are putting their money into something they don?t understand and a lot of people are disclaiming that this technology would bring growth and wealth until the great awakening takes place, - the insight that no money will be earned with this technology!
BBB policy I would call that!
Here just some facts (when I will get a little more time I will publish this a little more detailed!):
In our algae project (which purely produces for food/feed outlets) we need about 19 hectares for a bio reactor plant producing 2000 ? 2500, maybe 3000 tons of biomasses per year.
For the oil-industry it seems to be economical feasible if algae-bio-diesel is being produced for 0, 48 $ per litre in an ordering amount of 210 million litre ? which equals the yearly fuel requirement of 200.000 standard model factory cars. For such a production a floor space of 85 square kilometres would be necessary. The liquid volume in such a production would be 17.2 million cubic metres. This amount of liquid has to be kept floating steadily, daily harvest of at least half of the reactor volume has to be undertaken daily, the biomasses have to be dried, and, and and ??
The average lipid content (which is not bio fuel yet) of algae is about 33%. Theoretical one could produce 7-10 litre extractable algae-oil per square metre from a faultless running production plant (please notice the word "faultless"!).
One kg of algae biomasses (dried) has the calorific value of 24 mj (Mega joule) - to produce 1 kg of dried algae biomasses (waterhousehold-fluctation-movement-harvest drying) one would need 34 till 42 mj - that is for an average production facility based on 20 hectare (ponds want make so much more difference in energy consumption. The paddle wheels - losses from evaporation process that have to be filled up again - harvest - drying....) For sizes in algae plants like I have given example above the energy balance should be considerable different, - and I guess not to the better. On top of this now comes the cracking process and transport!
So much the information for your educational purpose.
We do believe in algae. It is a wonderful feedstock and an economical rewarding one, - but not as bio fuel!
AA
Fri August 13 2010 06:30:21 PM by AlgaeNova 7

Algae Based CO? Capture at Power Plants

Algae Based CO? Capture at Power Plants

In one of the last OILGAE-Newsletters this technology has been presented and the engagement of RWE ? an energy provider here in Germany, was described.
Among other things it was given the following impression:

?However, there are some specific operational problems as well, which could result in significant inefficiencies. For instance, high CO2 concentrations could cause the algae suspension to become acidic, thereby stunting algae growth.?

Well observed and a problem that is being taken care off. For ?normal? use of CO2 with a simple washing to reduce the sulphur content until the supply of clean CO2 (delivered through the technical gas supplier LINDE:

http://www.linde.com/international/web/linde/like35lindecom.nsf/docbyalias/homepage)

the whole spectra of flue gas supply for our PBR`s has been tested and are in use for different algae biomass production. Very favourable system integration has been achieved in connection with bio gas plants.
Here a short presentation from RWE:

?Take a look at the RWE climate protection research project it's a facility that's in a class of one:?
http://www.rwe.com/web/cms/en/318270/get-the-energy-to-lead/projects/co2/

Or find a demonstration video on our BOX.net account: https://www.box.net/shared/hvem3qlxd2

Helpful for all of you interested in algae ? CO2 storage might be this link as well:

Selection of optimal micro algae species for CO2 sequestration
http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/03/carbon-seq/PDFs/158.pdf
Fri June 25 2010 11:09:02 AM by AlgaeNova 3 co2  |  carbon  |  capture  |  bio reactor  |  algae breeding

New Research

Analytical chemists from the University in Konstanz, Germany found a method to produce synthetics from plant oil loss free

So far the methods of producing synthetics from renewable feedstock used fatty acids incomplete, thus squandering crucial parts of basic material, - or became as a result soft polymer with arborescent, treelike molecular structures.
A new method, found by Dorothee Quinzler, makes it possible to gain a lossless usage of the basic herbal or algal material in its specific molecular structure which now can be transferred into the synthetic to be produced. Long molecule, regular structures that are not ramified anymore and have the same quality characteristics comparable to Polyethylene can now be produced from plant, or algal oils.

Links:
http://idw-online.de/pages/de/news370401
(in German!)

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/123424698/sm001.pdf?PLACEBO=IE.pdf

VIP: Linear Semicrystalline Polyesters from Fatty Acids by Complete Feedstock Molecule Utilization

Dorothee Quinzler and Stefan Mecking*

In view of the limited range of fossil feedstocks, alternative renewable resources are desirable in the long term. Polymer production from a renewable resource ideally allows for complete molecular utilization of the feedstock. Complete and linear molecular incorporation of fatty acid esters, namely erucic? and oleic acid ester from plant oils, into polyesters is achieved by isomerizing carbonylation to polymerization?quality diesters and their polycondensation with the corresponding diols obtained by reduction. The strictly linear and long?chain?hydrocarbon nature of the novel polyesters affords a high degree of crystallinity and melting behaviour akin to common thermoplastics like polyethylene.
Fri May 21 2010 02:01:00 PM by AlgaeNova 1 algae to plastics  |  polymere production

New Research

Incorporation of carbon and nitrogen atoms into proteins measured by protein-based stable isotope probing (Protein-SIP)

New important scientific research lead to a method unravelling the carbon and nitrogen flow not only in pure cultures, but also in microbial communities consisting of many microbial species. With this method we will gain a better understanding of the incorporation of carbon and nitrogen atoms into proteins and it will finally lead us to a better, specific identification of contaminant-degrading communities, such as we find in advanced photo-bio-reactor systems.
Precise analysis of carbon and nitrogen fluxes in microbial communities of algae and bacteria species will help to identify the best possible combination of species with highest CO? degrading potential.
?We are absolutely interested in the research and the clarification of the biochemical fluxes in microbial communities, such as you have in your bio-reactor systems where there are, beside algae, also bacteria present.
For us it would be of interest to know when a, with 13C market CO? incorporates into the algae and when the bacteria linked to the alga is being taken up by the algae.? said Dr. Martin von Bergen to ALGAE NOVA.

Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany
email: Martin von Bergen (martin.vonbergen@ufz.de)

Link:
http://www.mcponline.org/content/early/2010/01/11/mcp.M900407-MCP200

http://idw-online.de/pages/de/news368988 (in German!-but with interesting graphic sollution!Enlarge the graphic!)
Thu May 13 2010 07:50:53 AM by AlgaeNova CCS  |  carbon fluxes