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New Technologies in the Textile and Dyeing Industry Wastewater Treatment


Clean Water the Clean Way

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Textile industry involves wide range of raw materials, machineries and processes to engineer the required shape and properties of the final product. Waste stream generated in this industry is essentially based on water-based effluent generated in the various activities of wet processing of textiles. The main cause of generation of this effluent is the use of huge volume of water either in the actual chemical processing or during re-processing in preparatory, d yeing, printing and finishing.

This section provides details on the new developments and efforts in the textile industry waste water treatment.

We have discussed the following:

  • Current Wastewater Treatment Process - Textile and Dyeing Industry
  • New Technologies in the Textile and Dyeing Industry Waste Water Treatment
    • Membrane Technology
    • Wet Air Oxidation of Desizing Wastewater from the Textile Industry
    • Experimental Study of Wastewater Treatment of Reactive Dye by Phys-Chemistry Method

    Current Treatment Process - Textile and Dyeing Industry

    The effluent from the dyeing industries generally consists of high amount of inorganic salts like sodium sulphate or sodium chloride. For the purpose of treating this effluent, first evaporation, then crystallization of Salts and thereafter centrifuging is done to dewater the salt output from crystallizer. A combination of industrial evaporators like Falling Film Evaporator, Forced Circulation Evaporator and Industrial Dryers like Agitated Thin Film Dryer, Fluid Bed Dryer etc, are used. Other auxiliary techniques such as centrifuging are also employed. The most common method used for wastewater treatment in textile industry is the membrane separation systems (Tseng, et al.,). Membrane bioreactors are also used for such purpose (Badania et al.,)

    Pollution Characteristics of Textile and Dyeing Industry Wastewater

      

    Current Treatment Process - Textile and Dyeing Industry

    New technologies in the Textile and dyeing Industry Waste Water Treatment

    The following section provides details on the latest trends and developments in the textile industry wastewater treatment:

    Membrane Technology

    Membrane technology has become a dignified separation technology over the past decennia. The main force of membrane technology is the fact that it works without the addition of chemicals, with a relatively low energy use and easy and well-arranged process conductions. Membranes are now competitive for conventional techniques. The membrane separation process is based on the presence of semi permeable membranes.

    The principle is quite simple: the membrane acts as a very specific filter that will let water flow through, while it catches suspended solids and other substances. Applications of high pressure, maintenance of a concentration gradient on both sides of the membrane and the introduction of an electric potential are some of the methods to enable membrane separation. Micro and ultra filtrations are some of the methods of membrane filtration. When salts need to be removed from water, nano filtration and Reverse Osmosis are applied.1

    Advantages

    • It is a process that can take place while temperatures are low.
    • It is a process with low energy cost.
    • The process can easily be expanded.

    Wet Air Oxidation of Desizing Wastewater from the Textile Industry

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) was applied to treat the desizing wastewater from natural and man-made fiber processing in a 2-L autoclave reactor. The range of operating temperatures examined was between 150 and 290 C. The partial pressure of oxygen ranged from 0.375 to 2.25 MPa at a reference temperature of 25 C. Experimental results showed that WAO is an efficient method for the treatment of desizing wastewater.2

    Experimental Study of Wastewater Treatment of Reactive Dye by Phys-Chemistry Method

    Wastewater, which involves easy-soluble reactive dyes, especially non-degradable dyes, is very difficult to decolor efficiently by normal processes such as coagulation process and biological treatment. The high chromaticity seriously hinders the reuse of reactive dye waste water. In this paper, a new method by bentonite adsorption and coagulation (PAC) is employed for removing color from synthetic dye waste water which contains reactive red K-2G, K-RN blue, K-GR blue, X-3B red, K-GN orange, KB-3G yellow, K-2BP red, K-RN yellow and K-G yellow. Bentonite pretreated by 4% CTMAB and milled to 160 order screen is proven to the best decoloring agent. For a 100 mL reactive red K-2G sample (CODcr 400 mg/L, 25 000 chromaticity color), 0.5 g bentonite pretreated and 2.5 mL PAC is enough to decolor wastewater up to 99.92% and the sediment time is short. Non-degradable dyes such as active red X-3B and K-GN orange are declored completely as well. Raw sewage (low chromaticity color) is decolored completely at a bentonite dosage of 0.001g. More researches prove the high practical value of this process.3

    References:

    1http://www.lenntech.com/membrane-technology.htm

    2Lecheng Lei, Xijun Hu, Guohua Chen, John F. Porter, and Po Lock Yue, 2000. Wet Air Oxidation of Desizing Wastewater from the Textile Industry. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 39 (8), pp 28962901

    3Yan-wu YANG, Tong-ling ZHOU, Qi-cheng QIAO and Shuo CHEN, 2007Experimental Study of Wastewater Treatment of Reactive Dye by Phys-Chemistry Method. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology 17, 96-100.




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